Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co.of Providence, R.I. manufacturer of Fine Machinery, Tools of Precision; The Gordon & Maxwell Co. of Hamilton,
Ohio manufacturer of Steam Driven Pumps and Water Works Machinery; The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. of Stamford, Conn. manufacturer of Steam Driven
Self-Propelled or Locomotive Cranes; Lodge, Davis & Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Shapers & Drills; Gould & Eberhardt of
Newark, New Jersey manufacturer of Shapers, Gear Cutters and other Special Machinery; E.E. Garvin & Co. of New York, NY. manufacturer of Machinists'
Tools, Including Milling Machines, Hand Lathes, Drill Presses, ect.; The Pratt & Whitney Co. of Hartford Connecticut manufacturer of Precision Machinist
Tools and Special Machinery; The Billings & Spencer Co. of Hartford, CT. manufacturer of Lathe Dogs & other Drop Forgings; Warner & Swasey Machine
Tools of Cleveland, Ohio manufacturer of Engine, Spinning Lathes and other Special Machinery; Pond Machine Tool Co.(Successors to David W. Pond)
of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Radial Drills, Planers, ect.; Geo. W. Fifield of Lowell, Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes; Hartford
Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn.; Geo. B. Grant of Boston, Mass. maker of Gear Wheels and Gear Cutting; W.P. Davis of
Bloomfield, NY. manufacturer of Key Seating Machines & Drills; The G. A. Gray Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of 17" & 20" Lathes; Pratt &
Letchworth Proprietors of Buffalo Steel Foundry of Buffalo, N.Y. offering Steel Castings; Stiles & Parker Press Co. of Middletown, Conn. manufacturer of
Punching Presses, Dies, Drop Hammers, Drop Forgings and other Tools for the Manufacture of all kinds of Sheet Metal Goods; J.M. Carpenter of
Pawtucket, R.I. manufacturer of Taps & Dies; WM Sellers & Co., Inc. of Philadelphia, PA. manufacturer of High Speed Power Traveling Cranes; The
Long & Allstatter Co. of Hamilton, Ohio manufacturer of Double, Single, Angle-bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and
Steam-Driven Punches & Shears also Power Cushioned Hammers; Russell & Co. of Massillon, Ohio builders of Automatic Engines, Boilers, ect.(Complete
Power Plants Furnished); J.E. Lonergan & Co. of Philadelphia, PA. manufacturer of Patent Oilers; R.A. Beldon Co. of Danbury, Conn. manufacturer of
Power Hammers; Castle Engine Works of Indianapolis, Ind. manufacturer of The Castle Steam Engine; The Muller Machine Tool Co. of Cincinnati, O.
manufacturer of 17" Engine Lathes; H. Bickford of Lake Village, N.H. manufacturer of Boring & Turning Mills; L.S. Starrett of Athol, Mass. manufacturer of
Fine Machinist Tools; Osgood Dredge Co. of Albany, New York manufacturer of Dredges, Excavators, Ditching Machines, Derricks, ect.; The Newark
Machine Tool Works of Newark, N.J. manufacturer of Planners, Lathes, Slotters, Boring Machines, Presses, ect.; Bement, Miles & Co. of Philadelphia, PA.
builders of Metal-Working Machine Tools for Railroad Shops, Locomotive & Car Builders, Machine Shops, Rolling Mills, Steam Forges, Ship Yards,
Boiler Shops, Bridge Works, ect.; Detrick & Harvey Manufacturers of Baltimore, Md. manufacturer of Corliss Engines; Chester Steel Castings Co. of
Chester, PA.; The Phosphor Bronze Smelting Co., Limited of Philadelphia, Pa. Original Manufacturers of Phosphor Bronze & Owners of the U.S. Patent;
Tallman & McFadden of Philadelphia, Pa. manufacturer of Milling Machines, Planners, Drills, ect.; The John T. Noye Mfg. Co. of Buffalo, N.Y.
manufacturer of Rice Automatic Cut-Off Engines (Gold Medal Winner Cincinnati Exposition, 1884); Shipman Engine Co. of Boston, Mass. manufacturer
of Oil Engines for Printers, Steam Yachts, pumping water, sawing wood, ect; The Skinner Engine Co. of Erie, PA. manufacturer of Portable & Stationary
Engines & Boilers; Korting Gas Engine Co., LD. of New York, N.Y. manufacturer of Korting Gas Engines; William Tod & Co. of Youngstown, Ohio
manufacturer of Porter-Hamilton Engines; S.L. Holt & Co. of Boston, Mass offering Portable & Stationary Steam Engines & Boilers, Steam Power
Drainage Pumps, Saw Mills, Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers and Belting; Kensington Engine Works, Limited of Philadelphia< Pa. manufacturer of the Tangye
Buckeye Automatic Cut-Off Engines; Albany Steam Trap Co. of Albany, NY manufacturer of Blessing's Water Circulator & Purifier; Frick Company
Builders of Waynesboro, Pa. manufacturer of Eclipse Corliss Engines; The "Otto" gas Engine Works - Schleicher, Schumm & Co. of Philadelphia, PA. &
Chicago, Ill. manufacturer of Otto Gas Engines; The Armstrong Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Conn manufacturer of Water, Gas & Steam Fitters' Tools; James
Brandon Co. of New York, N.Y. manufacturer of Brandon's Piston Ring Packing; E.P. Bullard of New York, NY manufacturer of Machine Tools; The Watts,
Campbell Co. of Newark, NJ manufacturer of Improved Corliss Steam Engines; The Hewes & Phillips Iron Works of Newark, N.J. manufacturer of Improved
Corliss Engines, Tubular Boilers; The Fishkill Landing Machine Co. of New York, New York manufacturer of The Improved Fishkill Corliss Engines; Robert
Whitehill of Newburgh, NY manufacturer of the Improved Corliss Engine, Slide Valve Engines, Stationary Boilers, General Machinery and Brass & Iron
Castings; Stearns M'F'G. Company of Erie, Pa. manufacturer of Engines, Boilers, Saw Mills and General Machinery; John McLaren of Hoboken, N.J.
builder of Corliss Engines, Air Compressors and Boilers; Hill, Clarke & Co. of Boston, Mass. sellers of Iron-Working Machinery; Adams & Richards Machine
Co. of New Brunswick, N.J. manufacturer of Fuel, Crude Petroleum or Kerosene Engines; The Babcock & Wilcox Co. of New York, NY manufacturer of
Water-Tube Boilers; Bridgeport Boiler Works of Bridgeport, Conn. manufacturer of The Lowe Boiler; WM T. Bate & Son of Conshohocken, Penn. sole
manufacturer of the Bate Steam Generator; The Wainwright M'F'G. Company of Boston, Mass. manufacturer of Corrugated Tube Exhaust Feed-Water
Heaters; Fossil Meal Co. of New York manufacturer of Meal Composition Non-Conducting Covering for Steam Pipe & Boilers; Gesswein Machine Co. of
New York manufacturer of Positive Pressure or Blast Blowers; Palmer, Cunningham & Co., L'd. of Philadelphia, Penn. manufacturer of Tools for
Mechanics including Chucks, Drills, Reamers, Screw-Plates, Railroad Supplies, ect.; Evansville Spar Mining Co. of Evansville, Ind. Producers of Flour
Spar Foundry Flux; Universal Radial Drill Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of Radial Drilling Machines; Hilles & Jones of Wilmington, Del. manufacturer
of Horizontal Flange Punches; Jenkins Bros. of New York manufacturer of The Original Unvulcanized Packing; Westcott Chuck Co. of Oneida, N.Y.
manufacturer of Lathe & Drill Chucks; Pond Engineering Co. of St. Louis, MO. manufacturer of Steam Boilers; The E. Horton & Son Co. of Windsor Locks,
Conn. manufacturer of the Horton Lathe Chuck; Watson & Stillman of New York manufacturer of Hydrostatic Machinery, Presses, Pumps, Punches,
Accumulators, Jacks, Valves, Fittings, Vault Elevators, ect.; Hoggson & Pettis M'F'G. Co. of New Haven, CT. manufacturer of The Sweetland Chuck; T.R.
Almond of Brooklyn, N.Y. manufacturer of the Almond Drill Chuck; Worcester Machine Screw Co. of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Set, Cap &
Machine Screws, Studs, ect.; The Cushman Chuck Co. of Hartford, Conn. manufacturer of "Cushman" Chucks; Coffin & Leighton of Syracuse, N.Y.
manufacturer of Machinists' Scales; Sterling Emery Wheel Co. of West Sterling, Mass. manufacturer of the Sterling Patent Emery Wheel; Standard Tool
Co. of Athol, Mass. manufacturer of Fine Machinists' Tools; Buffalo Forge Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. manufacturer of Buffalo Cupola & Forge Blowers; I.P.
Richards of Providence, R.I. manufacturer of Punches and Dies; The National Pipe Bending Co. of New Haven, Conn. offering Coils & Bends of Iron,
Brass and Copper; John S. leng of New York manufacturer of Weldless Cold Drawn Steel Tubes & Quick Opening Gate Valves; Pedrick & Ayer of
Philadephia, Pa. manufacturer of Cylinder Boring & Facing Machines; Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company of New Bedford, Mass. manufacturer of
Solid & Shell Reamers, Beach's Patent Self-Centering Chuck, Bit Stock Drills, Drill Grinding Machines, Mill Cutters and Special Tools; Simonds
Rolling-Machine Co. of Fitchburg, Mass. manufacturer of Steel Balls for Anti-Friction Bearings; VanDuzen & Tift of Cincinnati, Ohio makers of Complete
Steam Pumps; Rollstone Machine Co. of Fitchburg, Mass. manufacturer of Wood - Working Machinery for Chair, Furniture & Cabinet Factories, Box
Shops, Planing Mills, Pattern Makers' Use, ect.; S. Elliot of Newton, Mass. manufacturer of Drill Presses, Tap Drill Guages & Special Machinery Tools;
F.E. Reed of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Hand Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Drills & Milling Machines; S. Ashton Hand Mfg. Co. of
Toughkenamon, Pa. manufacturer of Engine Lathes; Boynton & Plummer of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Shaping Machines for Hand & Power;
Bickford Drill Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of Upright Drills; Springfield Glue & Emery Wheel Co. of Springfield, Mass. manufacturer of Emery &
Curundum Wheels, Emery Wheel machinery and Flint Papers; Pancoast & Maule of Phil., Pa. makers of Improved Steam Glue Heaters; Jos. Dixon
Crucible Co. of Jersey City, N.J. manufacturer of Dixon's Silica Graphite Boiler-Front & Smoke Stack Paint; New Haven Manf'g Co. of new Haven, Conn.
manufacturer of Iron-Working Machinery; L.W. Pond Machine Co. of Worcestor, Mas. manufacturer of Iron Working Machinery; J. Wyke & Co. of E.Boston,
Mass. manufacturer of Fine Machinists' Tools; Cary & Moen of New York City manufacturer of Steel Wire & Springs; William Barker & Co. of Cincinnati, O.
manufacturer of Iron & brass Working Machinery; Toledo Machine & Tool Co. of Toledo, Ohio manufacturer of Presses, Dies & Special Machinery; D.
Sounders' Sons of Yonkers, N.Y. manufacturer of Steam & Gas Fitters hand Tools; Acme Machinery Co. of Cleveland, O. manufacturer of "ACME" Single
& Double Automatic Boltcutters; Stow Manfg. Co. of Binghampton, N.Y. manufacturer of Flexible Shafts, Reaming Machines, Portable Drills & flexible
Boring Machines; John Steptoe & Co. of Cin., Ohio manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Iron Planers, Shapers & Drills; The Hoppes Mfg. Co. of Springfield,
O. manufacturer of Live Steam Feed-Water Heater & Lime Extractors; Energy MFG. Co. of Phil., Pa. manufacturer of Drill Guides & Steady Rests; Eagle
Anvil Works of Trenton, N.J. manufacturer of the Fisher Double Screw Leg Vise & the Eagle Anvil; Charles Murray of New York Engraver of Wood; S.W.
Goodyear of Waterbury, CT. manufacturer of Machinery for Reducing & Pointing Wire; The Laidlaw & Dunn Co. of Cin., Ohio manufacturer of Pumping
Machinery; Chas. A. Strelinger & Co. of Detroit, Mich. manufacturer of Fine Tools; Powell Planer Co. of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Iron Planers; P.
Blaisdell & Co. of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Machinists' Tools; Curtis & Curtis (Successors to Forbes & Curtis) of Bridgeport, Ct. manufacturer of the
Forbes Pat. Die Stock, Pipe Cutting & Threading Machinery; Brehmer Bros. of Phil., PA. manufacturer of Bevel Gears; The Mason Regulator Co. of
Boston manufacturer of Reducing Valves; Niagara Stamping of Buffalo, N.Y. makers of Presses, Dies and Special Machinery; Consolidated Machine &
Tool Works of Hastings, mich. & Chicago, Ill. manufacturer of Presses, Dies and Canning Machinery; Bradley & Co. of Syracuse, N.Y. manufacturer of
Cushioned Hammers, Heating Forges, ect.; The Deane Steam Pump Co. of Holyoke, Mass. manufacturer of Water Works Engines & Steam Pumping
Machinery; The Hendey Machine Co. of Torrington, Conn. manufacturer of Lathes; Miller, Metcalf & Parkin, Crescent Steel Works of Pittsburgh, PA.
suppliers of Die Steel in Bars or Blocks; Tower & Lyon (Successors to Melvin Stephens) of New York manufacturer of Stephens Vises; Sebatian, May & Co.
of Cin., O. manufacturer of Foot & Power Lathes, Drill Presses, Shapers, Band, Circular & Scroll Saws, Tools & Supplies; John W. Hudson- Madison
Manufacturing Co. of Madison, Wis.; Guild & Garrison of Brooklyn, N.Y. manufacturer of Steam, Vacuum and Filter Press Pumps & Air Compressors;
Montgomery & Co. of New York manufacturer of Tools, Supp;ies & Machinery; W.C. Young & Co. of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Engine, Hand &
Foot Lathes; Chas. F. baker of Minneapolis, Minn. manufacturer of Common Sense Oil Filters; Thos. H. Dallett & Co. of Phila., Pa. manufacturer of
Patent Portable, Hand, Boiler-Shell & Multiple Drills; The Tanite Company of Stroudsburg, PA. manufacturer of Tanite Emery Wheels & grinding
Machines; Cooke & Co. of New York manf'r. of The Binghampton Water Motor; U. Baird Machinery Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. manuf'r of Machinists', Pattern
Makers' & Boiler Makers' Tools and Supplies; John Wiley & Sons of N.Y. Publishers of Industrial and Scientific Works; Beecher & Peck of New Haven, Ct.
manufacturer of Peck's Pat. Drop Press & Drop Forgings of Iron & Steel; Muller Machine Tool Co. of Cincinnati, O. manuf'r of Engine Lathes, Planers,
Shapers & Drill Presses; Betts Machine Company of Wilmington, Del. Builder of Drills & Metal Working Machine Tools; Knowles Steam Pump Works of
N.Y. & Boston manf'r of Improved Pumping Machinery; Niagar Machine & Tool Works of Buffalo New York builders of Presses, Shears & other Special
Mach.; Chas. Parker Co. of Meriden, Ct. manufacturer of Guns, Gun Parts, Vises, Tools, ect.; J.H. Williams & Co. of Brooklyn, N.Y. makers of Wrenches,
Tools and other Quality Drop Forgings; Gage Machine Works of Waterford, N.Y. Manuf'r of Fox Turret & speed Lathes and Brass Finishers' Tools; E.W.
Bliss Co. of Brooklyn, New York World's Largest Manufacter of Presses, Dies, Shears, Mills,Canning Equipment and other Special Tools; Nicholson File
Co. of Providence, R.I. manuf'r of Files & Rasps; Nathan Manufacturing Co. of New York manuf'r of "Gresham" Patent Automatic Re-Starting Injector;
Cleveland Twist Drill Co. of Cleveland, O. manuf'r of Drills & Reamers; National Pulley Covering Co. of Baltimore, Md. manuf'r of Friction Pulley Covers;
Fitchburg Machine Works of Fitchburg, Mass. manuf'r of Metal Working Machines; Henry Carey Baird & Co. of Phil., Pa. Industial Publishers, Booksellers &
Importers; Volney W. Mason & Co. of Providence, R.I. manuf'r of Friction Pulleys, Clutches & Elevators; P.H. & F.M. Roots of Connersville, Ind. manuf'r of
Force Blast Rotary Blowers for Foundries, Smith Shops, Pneumatic Tubes, Ventilation, ect.; Beaudry & Co.(formerly of Beaudry's Upright Power Hammer)
of Boston, mass. manuf'r of Presses, Shears, Punches & Hard Coal Heating Forges; C.F. Richardson of Athol, Mass. manuf'r of Nickel Plated Pocket
Levels; Henderson Bros. of Waterbury, CT. manuf'r of Exhaust Tumbling Barrels; C.W. LeCount of South Norwalk, Conn. manuf'r of Lathe Dogs & other
Drop Forgings; Park Mfg. Co. of Boston manuf'r of Injectors, Ejectors & Jet Apparatus; T. Shriver & Co.'s Iron Foundry of N.Y.; The Volker & Felthousen
M'F'G. Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. manuf'r of Steam Pumps; Pulsometer Steam Pump Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Steam Pumps; Hall Steam Pump Co. of N.Y.
builders of Steam Pumps; Jas. Hunter & son of North Adams, Mass. manuf'r of Clutch Pulleys & Cutt-Off Couplings; Union Stone Co. of Boston manuf'r of
Emery Wheels, Grinding Mach., Polishing & Plating Goods and Tools; Edwards Meeks of Phil. - Publisher; Gage Tool Co. of Vineland, N.J. manuf'r of
Planes & Hand Tools; Henry R. Worthington of N.Y. manuf'r of Independent Condensers; Niles Tool Works of Hamilton, Ohio manuf'r of Machine Tools;
Buckeye Engine Co. of Salem, Ohio manuf'r of engines; The Garvin Machine Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Machines & Machine Tools; Manning, Maxwell &
Moore of N.Y. manuf'r of Railway and Machinists' Tools & Supplies; Lexington Gear Works of Lex., Mass. makers of Gears; M.C. Bullock of Chicago, Ill.
manuf'r of Bullock-Corliss Engines, Diamond Drills for Prospecting, Band Friction Hoists & Mining Mach.; The Lane & Bodley Co. of Cin., Ohio manuf'r of
Corliss Engines; G.S. Woolman of New York manuf'r of Drawing Instuments; The D. Frisbie Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Frisbie Friction Pulleys & Clutches; The
Ball & Wood Co. of Elizabeth, N.J. manuf'r of Ball Automatic Cut-Off Engines; Lackawanna Lubricating Co. of Scranton, PA. manuf'r of Grease Cups;
The De Lamater Iron Works of N.Y. manuf'r of General Machinery; Henry Warden Manufacturer of Phil., PA. manuf'r of Atkinson Cycle Gas Engines; The
Hilles & Jones Co. of Wilmington, Del. manuf'r of Machine Tools; Bement, Miles & Co. of Phil., Pa. manuf'r of Metal-Working Mach. Tools; William
Sellers & Co. of Phil., Pa. manuf'r of Machine Tolls for Working Iron & Steel; The New Process Raw Hide Co. of Syracuse, N.Y manuf'r of Raw Hide Gears;
Southwark Foundry & Machine Co. of Phil., Penn. manuf'r of Boileers, Steam Hammers, Blowing & Reversing Engines, Centrifugal Pumps, Steam Pumps
& Heavy Castings; The Norton & Jones Machine Tool Works of Plainville, Conn. manuf'r of Machine Tools & Special machinery; The Champion Blower
& Forge Co. of Lancaster, Pa.; J.D. wright & Sons of Brooklyn, N.Y.; The Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. of Cincinnati, O.; N.P. Bowsher of South Bend,
Ind.; J.E. snyder of Worcester, Mass.; Edison General Electric Company; American Gas Furnace Co. of N.Y.; Landis Bros. of Waynesboro, Pa.; Trump
Bros. Machine Co. of Wilmington, Delaware; R.D. Nuttall & Co. of Allegheny, PA.; Giant Key-Seater Co. of East Saginaw, Mich.; Light Drill Presses of
Hartford, Conn.; J.E. Lonergan & Co. of Phila., Pa.; Harrison Safety Boiler Works of Phil., Pa.; T.M. Foote Regulator Co. of Boston; Adriance Machine
Works of Brooklyn, N.Y. manuf'r of Gang Slitters, Automatic Screw Machines and Double Seamers; Samuel C. Rogers & Co. of Buffalo; Alfred Box & Co.
of Phila., Pa.; Van Duzen Gas & Gasoline Engine Co. of Cincinnati, O.; Capitol Mfg. Co. of Chicago; M.T. Davidson of Brooklyn, N.Y.; The States
Machine Co. of Newark, N.J.; L. & R. Wister & Co. of Phila., PA.; John Royle & Sons of Paterson, N.J.; Penberthy Injector Co. of Detroit, Mich.; A.J.
Wilkinson & Co. of Boston; William Jessop & Sons, L'd. of Sheffield, England; Crescent Steel Co. of pittsburgh, Pa.; .

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1906      AMERICAN MACHINIST        pg 495
Some Special Problems and Their Solution

The thread-milling machine built by the Pratt & Whitney Company, of Hartford, Conn.,
contains solutions of some interesting mechanical problems, an analysis and description of
which may prove of some interest to those engaged in machinery building. To outline these
special problems and their solutions will be the object of this article; as descriptions of the
machine as a whole, illustrating its general construction and giving information concerning its
operation and various advantages, have already appeared in these columns.

To produce a worm or a screw on an ordinary engine lathe, two conditions are necessary—
the advancement of the cutting tool and tl a turning of the work. To perform the same
operation by a milling process a third element musi.` be introduced and that is the rotation of
the cutter.
To cut a worm or a screw rotary cutter, the latter must be set at the same angle as
the angle of inclination of the thread. But as this angle is variable within very wide limits,
according to the diameter of the work and the pitch of the thread and is different for right- and
left-hand threads, the setting of the cutter must be permissible within the same limits. This
means that the driving of the cutter spindle must be performed in such a manner that its
inclination within the necessary practical limits for right-and left-hand threads shall not affect
it. In other words it is required to communicate motion to an axis inclined at a variable angle.
Such a problem would not offer great difficulties if it were not accompanied by some special
features. When a thread is cut by a stationary tool, the cutting is done by the sharp edge of
the tool, which can practically be considered as a point. Such a cutting edge will form in the
work a perfectly true helical curve, as a result of the rotation of the work and advancement of
the cutter. But if, instead of a sharp edge in the work, were to be introduced a cutting element
of some length, the shape of the groove would be deformed and its section would not
correspond with the section of this cutting element. Such a deviation would depend: (I) upon
the curvature of the helix which in its turn is determined by the diameter of the work and the
lead of the thread; (2) upon the angle or taper of the tool and (3) upon the length of the cutting
element. But, as the first twofactors are fixed for every given case, only the third can be
changed to suit the required conditions. In the case of forming a thread by a milling cutter, the
cutting is certainly done by an element of some length, and to prevent such deformation in
the shape of the thread as might be of any practical importance the diameter of the cutter
must be as small as possible. Of course small cutters have
generally important advantages; namely, they are more easily driven, having a greater angular
velocity with the same peripheral velocity on one hand and are cheaper to manufacture on the
other. But in this case small cutters must be considered rather a necessity than an advantage.
Taking such a statement as a basis in designing the cutter-driving mechanism of the thread
miller we certainly come to themost complicated and original problem the designer of this
machine had to solve.
Disregarding for the present the question as to how the cutter is driven, it must be admitted
that the driven member in any case will be fixed on the spindle for the cutter. But as the cutter
travels along the work with its axis in a plane parallel to the latter and enters the work to the
depth of the thread, there is a very limited space left for the driven member which must clear
the work. Therefore,•the cutter must be driven by a gear considerably smaller than itself.
It is frequently required to cut screws with shoulders with the thread close up to the latter. In
such cases the cutter must be brought close up to the shoulder, and that means that one side
of the cutter must be free from any support, having it drive and the bearing arranged at one
Three more points will complete the conditions which mu be considered in designing the
cutter-driving arrangement and these are: first, means must be provided to change the
direction of rotation of the cutter, when changing from right to left-hand threads or from left to
right; second, the whole arrangement of the cutter drive must be such that it will permit the
longitudinal travel of the cutter without affecting its positive connection with the. initial driving
point; and third, the cutter must be able to move to or from the work without its gearing being
disconnected. As this transverse movement of the cutter is required very often, when multiple
threads -or pieces of different diameters are cut and every time the cutter is set to the exact
depth of the thread, it must be effected in an easy and simple way. The above analysis shows
that the cutter-driving mechanism must comprise quite a complicated mechanical
combination, permitting the flexibility of the cutter in several directions; setting at an angle,
transverse and longitudinal movements and, reversal of the direction of rotation.
To give a clearer idea of the whole problem, as represented in the above description, it will be
necessary to say a few words in regard to the strains under which the parts of the cutter drive
are working. This can be well illustrated by some figures taken from the heaviest model thread
miller; and a section through the cutter head of this tool revealing the entire cutter-driving
arrangement is given in Fig. I. This machine, designed to thread pieces up to 48 inches long
and 12 inches diameter, formed the subject of an article appearing at page 359, Vol. 28, Part II.
A thread I inch deep and i %inch pitch can be cut at one operation on this miller, the cutter
being 5 or 6 inches diameter. The driving shaft has a pulley
October 18, i906.        AMERICAN  MACHINIST       

496        AMERICAN MACHINIST        October 18 1906    .
15 inches in diameter and is supposed to run at a speed of 500 revolutions per.minute. To
supply sufficient power a 3-inch belt is necessary. The cutter is geared from the driving shaft
in a ratio of io to I. Neglecting the power consumed by friction throughout the machine, we
find that every member of the balanced working system of the machine experiences
proportionally the same strain and therefore the resistance on the periphery of a 5-inch cutter
in our case will be 15/5X Io, or 30 times as great as the grip of the 3-inch belt. The cutter is
driven by a pinion x34 inch diameter, 19 teeth, 12 diametral pitch, and the strain on the
periphery of the pinion will be 30X5/I.75 = 86 times the grip of the belt. To enable this pinion to
stand such a strain salvation has been found in the length of the teeth, which is 5 inches; in
the material, which is high-grade tool steel; in careful workmanship to insure contact of the
teeth all along their length, and in efficient lubrication. These four factors have made possible
what at first glance would seem impossible, and no trouble has been experienced in the way
of wear of this part notwithstanding the considerable length of time elapsing since this size of
machine was put in operation. Referring now to the drawing Fig: I, we will follow up the
construction of the cutter-driving mechanism.

The cutter spindle is shown at A and the driven pinion B forms a part of that spindle. Through
two intermediate gears C and D the pinion B is connected with the pinion E, forming a part of
a spindle on which a bevel gear F meshing with a bevel pinion G is fixed. The center line of G
coincides with the center line of the cutter. All these gears are inclosed in a cutter head
connected with the cross slide by trunnions H. The latter being hollow are fastened together
by nuts I and in this manner the cutter head is fixed in position after the cutter is set to the
required angle. The center line of the trunnions is of course on the same line as that of the
cutter. As has been mentioned• before, the ratio of the gearing between the cutter and the
driving shaft is io to I and the designer's tendency was to confine the greater part of the
reduction to the cutter head and accordingly the pinion B has 25 teeth, and E ig teeth. The
gears F and G are in the ratio of II to 2. The whole decrease in speed in the cutter head is 7.24
to I. In such manner the strain is taken off the rest of the mechanism where the parts have a
sliding movement while they are loaded.
On the shaft I on the end of which the teeth of G are cut, a bevel gear K is fixed, the latter
engaging with gears L L, which are closely mounted upon the shaft M and can be connected
with it alternatively by the clutch N. At this point the reversing of the direction of rotation of the
cutter is accomplished.
The shaft M, by gears 0 and P, is connected with a vertical telescopic shaft Q, which is
connected with the main driving shaft by gears R and S. The introduction of a telescopic shaft
at this point permits cross movement of the slide, with which the cutter head is connected,
while the gear S is free to slide along a feather on the main shaft, thus permitting longitudinal
movement of the cutter head without disturbing the positive connection.
The arrangement of these parts on the machine can be clearly seen on the half tone Fig. 2,
representing the rear view of a machine designed for lighter work.
Notwithstanding the considerable reduction of strain on the main shaft, it is still subjected to
torsional strain, when long pieces are threaded and the motion to the cutter is transmitted a
long distance from the main driving point, so to reduce
this strain under such condition a fly-wheel is mounted close to the gears R and S.

Because of the strain under which all the parts work, considerable attention has been paid to
the construction of the feed slide carrying the cutter head. Owing to the inclination of the
cutter the force acting on the slide has a twisting effectyupon the latter, and to insure an easy
movement of the slide it is made in the shape of a cross, thus giving a four-point bearing. It
would be outside the scope of this article to go into a full description of the machine, but it
may not be out of place to conclude with a few words respecting the cutter. In consequence
of the inclination of the cutter while working, the chips are liable to be carried along by its
teeth, and the lubricant could not wash them off if the space between were too limited. For
this reason, and to admit of ample lubrication to carry off the heat, the teeth of the cutter are
staggered; thatis, every other tooth is milled out in such a manner that opposite a space on
one side of the cutter there is a tooth on the other, one whole tooth being left for gating.
Formulas for Constructing Rings
Made from Square or Flat
Iron Bent Edgewise'
In 1904, I was chairman of the committee on reducing railroad forgings to an exact science. At
that time I was not prepared to give mathematical formulas for constructing rings made from
square or flat iron bent edgewise, but I have since produced formulas that will give the exact
dimensions of a ring bent from
square or flat iron, in its original shape before bending, also the exact dimensions of the ring
after bending.
Many different methods are used by practical smiths to determine the proper length to cut the
straight bar. The carriage smith will either roll the wheel over a long bar of iron or will use a
small wheel and roll the outside of the wheel and the inside of the tire, making the allowance
for the openings between the felloes, which method is absolutely correct. In a locomotive or
manufacturing shop conditions are different, as.the smith works from drawings and in many
cases has no means of measuring the circumference the ring is to fit over. Oftentimes the ring
has to be finished on all sides in the machine shops and the proper allowance has to be made
for finishing.
Different smiths have different methods of calculating the straight length of the bar. Many use
the old rule, "as 7 is to 22
*A paper read before the Railway Master
Blacksmiths Association.

AMERIcaN MACHINIST        Octo 'er T. Tom.
2to250H.P.        -_a
en gf nee are reliable. catalog "1t."        '
The Foos        7
Gas Engine Co.        -         -Springflell, II.
leo. J. Cone.        .. ... ...i _o..        Jae. C. Halletel.
A. W. Fier,,.        D. W. Alctfaugb,r
TESTS AND CONSULTATION •B Broadway, New York.        1121 The Rookery, Chicago.
Monongahela Bank Building, Pittsburgh.
31 Norfolk House, London, England.
inspection of Bail, n d Farteni,, ge, Car', Locom„tivee, Pipes
etc. Brldrea. Buildings and other Strn'ruree.
Chemical and Phyeieal Laboratories.
Reports and Estimates on Properties and Processes.
Warren Gas Engines,
Single, Double and Multi. Cylinder Types, 30 H.P. and upwards.
Adapted for all power purpose,
Economy and regulation
fully guaranteed.
Struthers=Wells Company,
Warren, Pa.
New York Office, 26 Cr- landt St.
Industrial        Architectural
Mechanical        Electrical
ENGINES 1%2 TO 80 H. P.
Direct Conraected Generators, Pumps, Air Compressors, Hoists, Etc.
Fend for Catalogue.        ` a • t41 I — ` ° Z,
Dept. 85.        1 28-138 Mott St„ New YorK.
From 2% to 75 H. P. Single, and 65 to 150 HP. Duplex: also Spec ial Electrical Engines.
c        Catalog on request.
Gas or Gasoline 8 mpl-.t, most
roost ,net dnrabl« and cheapest first
class engine made
Send for att,logc. t•
Foss Gasoline Engine Ga.
Kalamazoo. Mich.
U. S. A.
Gas and Gaso-
Jacobson Ma-
ohine        -
f ns ~e ie nn en~,ur as aimnle a an Olds. mmpare it with others and this eStatement ~- proved.
The repairs cost practically nothing. r east duplicates of our part cau be furnished at
The Most Economical Engine
For general power formachlue Shope and power plants
all kinds.
Te• reason why Is Interee'ingly told 10 our eataior mailed nn request. Tell to our requiremeuts
and we will •elp you tore Out what you need, send fur o
catalog showing fops A (2 8 R p.i. Type G (e-;0 h. p~, ryne K alt .I N (12-1200 h. p.. Use t with
our Gas Pro ducer, it will reduce fuel l or        per cent,.
Celebrated Picture Free
For Oat. sump+, to pay cost of mailing, we ,,no ou Rosa B,,uheur's •'Horse Fair."
911 Cbestnnt St., Lansing
13 to 150 11. P.
For Gas or Gasoline.
The New Era Ces
Engine Co.,
25 Dale Ave.,
DAYTON, 0..I;.3.6-

OF COURSE it is dangerous to take chances with a crank, oftentimes expensive. Furthermore,
it is unnecessary. We know how, and we have facilities to produce cranks that will relieve you
of trouble, labor and vexatious delays. It is surprising how satisfactory a first-class crank can
be when made by us. If you are looking for strictly high-grade crank shafts, made from the
best quality of material, '..ith all caylindrical parts ground true to size , finished ready for use,
send detailed drawings or blue prints, stating quantities for prices.
Standard Connecting Rod Co.,
Beaver Falls, Pa., U. S. A.
Cheapest Power Known.        vorCirculs-Address
Backus Gas and Gasoline Engines nc~+eoReprCot,22 s.Chl.agoWetl, Backus Water Motor Co.
N •r~•r and Fau Co., 22 Jo. C;aual ytr r
cn;naK , ul.        Newark, N. 1., U. S. A,
AMERICAN MacHINIST        Oct 1906

Chicago        Rawhide Mfg. Co.,
94 Ohio Street,        -,        _ •rss St.,
Rawhide        E        Rawhide
Pinions        and        Belting,
Blanks.        Laing=Rope        .
Ready made Cut Gears.
Ready made Cast Gears.
Ready made Brass Gears. • Gears made to order.
dears Cuton your Blanks.
Catalog on eppl,ca[fn. Trestiee on 6esrx, $1.00.
Grant Gear Works, ins.
6 Portland St.. Boston, Mass,
We don't know the size or kind you want, but most likely we've got it in stock. If not, we can
snake it "in a hurry.' ' We are noted for our quick deliveries.
Grant's Treatise on Gears $1.00
Philadelphia GEAR Works, Inc.
GEO. B. GRANT, Pres. 8 M. E.
7th and Cherry Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.
Sawyer Gear Works
227 St. Clair St., Cleveland, 0.
Gears i of all kinds and sizes in 1. stock and made toorder.
From—the cheapest that's good TO        the best that's made.
Sample our Workmanship.
Get our Prices.
if you let        RODNEY i
j me make        ; .        DAVIS,        N
M your gears        624 Race St. ^
^ they'll be        Philadelphia, K

A Pattern        
is sometimes a very        expensive part of a        
"made to order" Gear.        Our stock num-        
bers several thousand.        We may be able to        
fit your specifications,        thereby eliminating        
the cost of new patterns.        No trouble for us        
to ascertain, communicate at once.        
R. D. Nuttall Co.        
Pittsburg,        Pa.        

Uniformity and        Durability
make        our tools        the        best        -        -
Our Common Sense Screw Plates, Taps, Dies and Reamers are made from
the best material with great care.        Both quality and price are guaranteed.
Place your next orr'er with us.
2.7'7'7•2 2'7        2'7 7 2'2.1'9QB


GEARS        x
Made right from right        ma-        y~
terials.        Made accurately and        
made        to        last.        Made        as a        y~
specialty and in every        kind        y~
and size.        .4
Send for "Hand Book of Gearing."        r4
Taylor-Wilson Mfg. Co.
Thomson Ave.,        McKees Rocks, Pa., U.S.A.

GEARS Correctly Cut.

Our rawhide pinions are the some as all other "Fawcus" products—quality unsurpassed."
28th Street, Pittsburg,Pa., U.S.A.
SPUR,        U to
MITER        Diam.
Oxford and ,1lascher Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.

Internal or Annular Gears are correctly cut on the Fellows Gear Shaper only. No rotary cutter
will cut*,. them in the practical way that makes them profitable. The reasons are ready when-
ever you choose to ask for
rHE Fellows Gear Shaper Co.
-        c        Bevel,
~~ \        Spiral,
Internal, Spur,
Ratchet—all kinds of gears cut
with greatest accuracy.
D. O. JAMES 35-37 So. Canal St.
Chicago, Illinois.
Bay State Tap & Die Co.,        Makers of        /        .~~,~        ~        -  MANSFIELD, MASS., U.S.A. I
Fine Taps and Dies
Alomd drill chucks        
Says the Only Way a Manufac=
turer can Create Continued
Demand is to Aim to
Produce the Highest
Quality of Product.
Mr. C. A. Clarke, of Hill, Clarke & Co., Boston, at a recent meeting of the Nat'l S. & M. D. Ass'n at
Detroit, struck the Almond keynote when he emphatically declared: "I believe there is only one
correct way in which the manufacturer can create demand, continued demand, for his product.
This way, the best way, is foreach manufacturer to aim to produce the highest quality of product,
the best in design, best in material, and best in workmanship. -` * * * No price would trouble me
when I knew that behind the price was a machine that represented the value."
We could not define Almond methods more to the point than Mr. Clarke has done. Behind the
Almond Drill Chuck is the value.
The Almond Drill Chuck alone has built up the Almond Drill Chuck business —a continued
demand. It has been stamped with the O-K of public approval, an O-K that cannot be put on an
article by the mere say-so of the manufacturer, an O-K
that cannot be eliminated by price-lowering methods of competition.
The Almond Chuck is an "Almond" product—an Almond invention, manufactured by Almond
methods. It was put on the market in i 876 and from the first the policy of manufacture has been to
adhere to a high ideal, to insist on a uniformity of material and workmanship in maintaining that
high standard of perfection set by T. R. Almond, whose genius and mechanical ability are widely
recognized and respected in scientific circles.
If you want an Almond Chuck get an Almond. There are two styles, identically the same except that
one has gear teeth cut on the ferrule to permit of using a pinion instead of a spanner wrench.
Have you given due consideration to :
Utilizing the end of the shop for machine tool installation—Setting up machines where
convenience will reduce cost of production
Preventing loss of power in transmission equipment—Doing away with troublesome mule stands
and noisy bevel gearing
Economy in belts
A dependable, economical right-angle drive ?
Get particulars of the Almond Right-Angle Transmission, another "Almond" patent.
T. R. Almond Mfg. Co.
Brooklyn, N. V.
Machine for making
plates with high-raised
1_e letters and numbers
on Zinc or Aluminum for
Raisers Bros., 100 Schermerhorn St.,B'klyn,N.Y,
A Victor saw caws what you wish to saw. H:.aLy says-        ThU __s wha: you want
t-, -Lit and we'll ser. _ - . a-Victor        -        ...
Massachusetts Saw Works, Chicopee, Mass.
London Store, 8 White St., E. C.        New York Store, 56 Reade St.
Special Machinery and
Machines Built on Contract.
lam bnli tint eperlal machinery, lire and flxtaree. pnnrhea and die,, general nuchlue worn, or am
prepared to n,anufa.cture teach! net or tools on contract. 1 have had fifteen yeareexperlence and
c•n .ace you money in this line. Do not Irt not any wort until you have consulted me. Send blue
prints for estimate.
Chas. S. Dexter, 30 Railroad St., Attleboro, Mass.
Cri~chley's Patent Expanding Reamer
G. B. CHADWICK a CO., Portsmouth, N. H.
rRADE si.RK        Belleville, N.J:
The Aibro-Clem Elevator Co.
See Issue Oct. II        PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Spicer Universal Joints
nil abed, slue and tnedeie to o„        full
power or M-In. to        Inrtx.
Spicer Universal
Joint M'f'g Co.
Plainfield, N. J.
New York re1r.-=..__ .,tl , THUS. J. NEIL}L, _Y W. 42,1 St.
The Catlin is the Keyseater
That cuts accurate keyeeats, and cuts costs, without cutting a fuss about it. May we send
you the Catlin catalog? It's good reading.
23 and 25 Victoria Street, London, S.W.
L] kind you
'        —have been look
- -        - = ing for."
- -- - -        - -        Strongest and
most durable.
Made of the
best steel and
o the 's r k right. Send for description and price. MUTUAL MACHINE CO.,        Hartford, Conn.
European Aft,: C.W Rurvn, ,rltfithsk Co., l.ud.atrbq,I.cnion
with  NOooncorrosive Soldering Fluid.
Dealers, or direct.O
AMERICAN MACHINIST        October ?S. 1906.

Electric Light Prints.

Patented June 10, 1902; September 8, 1903.
A continuous printing machine. The most economical, rapid and convenient. Variable speed.
Best utilization of light. Made to print up to 30, 42, 54 inches wide. Descriptive circular on
KEUFFEL. & ESSER CO.,127 St eet,n New York.
111 Madison St.        813 Locust St. - ; 40 Oak St., cur. Market.
Drawing Materials. Surveying Instruments. Measuring Tapes.
VVritr fur u  53nnldete (550 panel Catab,gue.
Write For Further Information.

Two Reasons
why the Landis Die
is being talked about:
—It lasts many times longer than any other. It requires no annealing, bobbing or retempering.
There are many other equally good reasons
told in our Catalog. Send for it.
Landis Machine Co.
Waynesboro, Pa.
with the "Sim-Pull" Countershaft—Pull to Start, Pull to Stop—and if handle is pulled more than
half way the reaction of the return spring completes the shifting of belt.        Catalog No. 8 for
MOSSBERG WRENCH CO., Central Falls, R. I.
If you are, we desire to get in touch with you. Were looking for machine work of every nature for
Immediate Delivery.
We have modern facilities for assisting manufactjrers who are behind with their orders and
need temporary assistance in order to catch up.
Let us hear from vou.
National Machine
and Tool Co.,
253 A Street.        Bcston, Mass.\

When You Want To Clean Castings
dean—want to do it quickly and easily, and at the lowest possible cost, the PASBON-WARREN
SAND BLAST MACHINE is the thing to use. Write for Circular.
Manufacturers Foundry
Equipment & Supplies.
bat N. Delaware Ave.,
You Can Make Your Own Name and Direction Plates
and handle
your difficult        —
engraved die
work v.lth this Engraving
Machine of        ''        ''~'
ours and save
a lot of money and'ime. This is a        thing
worth looking        a
into. May        '.L we send a
Geo. Gorton Machine Co.,
Racine, Wis,
Write for Price List No. 18 of
and Samples of Papers

Electric Light Prints.
P ices for Large Prints up to 4, x 1^1t BLACK PRINTS
On Paper, Sq. ft. 3 C. BLUE PRINTS        C On Paper, Sq. ft.
On Cloth, Sq. ft, a7 C. Write for Sample Prints.
Blue Print Papers.
%lentir,n this Journal when ordering.
A Positive Knowledge
of the speeds at which your tools are running must be had before you can apply a remedy. This
knowledge is best gained through the use of the Cut Meter, which gives all speeds in feet per
minute instantly, without any rigging, fuss or adjustment.
The details are interesting; given in catalog, sent on request.
tarner strument Co., .59 Roosevelt Ave., ELOIT. WIS., U.S.A. New York Office: 1691 Broadway.
Boston: 143 Federal St.
PqSelig, Sonenthal & oo., ..eadon. Hale Agents for Great Britain: C. W. Burton, orlf. Bths k Co.,
6:_~.=-'-:        don, B. C. Sole
Agents for Caa-
eds: Fairbanks A
Co., Montreal,
October 18, 1906.        AMERICA\ MACHINIST        85
speeds on the Henry & Wright Ball Bearing Drill Press, with one continuous cemented belt and
only two steps on the spindle and driving pulleys, is a step in advance of the usual three speeds
with three- and four-step pulleys and two laced belts.
Henry & Wright Ball Bearing Drill
times as many holes can be drilled with the Henry & Wright Ball Bearing Drill Press, in many
kinds of work, as with any other drill press in use. It will do more work in a given time in every
case than any other drill you may know of.
Write for Drill Book.

, 1 Office and Factory: 111-137 Sheldon Street, Hartford, Conn.
A stock of our machines Is carried on hand at all times by the following agents
Hill, Clarke & Co., New York, Boston, Chicago and St. Louis.        W, M. Pattison Supply Co.,
E. A. Kinsey Co., Cincinnati.        J. W. Wright & Co., St. Louis.
We are also represented by the
Chas. G. Smith Co., Pittsburg, Pa. W. E. Shipley, Philadelphia, Pa. Cotton States Belting &
Supply Co...Atlante.
Roy Machinery Co., Minneapolis. Bailey-Smith Machinery Co , San Francisco.

Automobile Cranks To Reduce ?
Yes: Then you ought to have the Tindel-Albrecht Crank Shaft Turning Lathe. It reduces
automobile crankshafts from the rough forging to size for grinding.
Does this work quickly, yet accurately.        -
You will not find another lathe as good for this purpose.
The Catalog will post you concerning other good features. Shall we send it?
The Tindel-Morris Company, Eddystone, Pa., U.S.A.
Distributors fvr North America, South America and Jal,an, Sib s-Bentz nt Pond c-, 111 iin,adway,
S. 1.
Pe Fries & Cie., Akt-Ges., Dusseldorf & Berlin, Germany. Do Fries & Cie., Foro Bonaparte, 54-56,
Milan, Italy. De Fries & Cia., Cortes,
Barcelona, Spain. De Fries & Cie., Avenue do l'Opera, 32, Paris, France, Austria-Hungary, St.
86        AMERICAN MACHINIST        Oc.cter , TO.
With the NewO. K.Tool
Holder You Can InstantlyChange
to any tool, because a quarter turn of the nut releases the tool and allows another to be inserted.
You will notice this new holder has the locking nut right over the head of the tool, insuring it
being held absolutely rigid.
Write today for full particulars. Can we send you one of these new sets on trial ?
The 0. K. Tool Holder Co.
Shelton, Coz z., U. S. A.
Reducing Wheels,
for the , xaeting re-        , quirements of the
Engine Builder
and Consulting
'1^'        Engineer.
Done Right and "Right away.'
Special attention given to orders "too small or too floe for li
other fellow t,' I .,.tl,rr
Lippincott Steam Specialty Co,
50-59 COLOMBIau ST.,        \h.WARX, N. J.
WILL YOU try Shultz Sable Rawhide Belting for sixty days ? Will you try it at our risk and  
expense in your shop ? That's the easiest, quickest way to know that what we say about
"Sable" is "so." Rawhide Interior and Tanned Surface will save you
money on belting if you'll let them.        Get Book No. 9.
Shultz Belting Company, - St. Louis, Mo.
New York: 111 Chambers St.        Boston: 114 High St.        Philadelphian 116 N. Third St.
Waterproof, Steamproof, Acidproof.        Try It.
TRADE MARK        Branches in all Large Cities.
A Calculagraph tells
The actual lime of each workman on each operation without any possibility of error. Guessing is
expensive—cut it out. Booklet ?
Calculagraph Company,
1438 Jewelers Building,        New York.
important exclusive features possessed by the
This most important and far-reaching improvement removes the radical weakness of the open
knee, gives the solidity and stiffness requisite for heavy cutting and the severe stresses
brought about by high-speed tool steels and prevents the spring, twist and vibration due to the
weakness inherent in a knee open on top and often open on sides as well.
The extended bearing on the column adds to the stability of the knee, gives 30 per cent. more
bearing surface and prevents the tendency to sag.
All sizes of our Universal Plain and Vertical Milling Machines are equipped with our Patented
It's worthy of your investigation.
Write us or our nearest agent for Catalog,
The Garvin Machine Company
Spring and Varick Streets        New York City
AGENTS—Providence, Thornton Machinery Co. Boston, Thomas Crowther & Co., 170 Oliver
Street. Philadelphia, E. L. Fraser, 622 Arch Street. San Francisco, J. L. Hicks, 2526 Bryant Street.
Chicago and Cleveland, Manning, Maxwell & Moore. Portland, Oreg., J. M. Arthur & Co. Los
Angeles, L. Booth & Son, 262 S. Los Angeles St. Charlotte, N. C., Textile Mill & Supply Co.
Mexico, D. F., Mexico Mine & Smelter Supply Co. Torreon, Mexico, Schiess & Co., Apartado 447.
London, C. W. Burton, Griffiths & Co.. Ludgate Square. Stockholm, Hugo Tillquists' Maskin
Agentur. Liege, A. Englemann & Cie. Paris, L. Strasburger & Co., 13 Rue des Mathurins. Berlin,
Heinrich Dreyer, Kaiser Wilhelm Strasse, 47. Dresden, (A-3) Hermann Haelbig.
IUctober 1S, 1906.        AMERICAN MACHINIST

Patent KEY HOLLOW THE Hollow Screws have no projections—you screw them down well
within the collar. No shoulders; no countersinkings; no projectors and hubs necessary. That
means a saving in cost and labor; eliminates all danger of accident.
They are made of steel, drawn with an hexagonal hole, which insures elasticity and prevents
loosening during changes of temperature. With the wrench shown in illustration, the screw
can be tightened or removed with ease, and there is no worn, battered screw slot or twisting
off of heads to contend with. You get a bearing with the wrench the entire length of the screw,
and force is applied largely at the point of the screw, where it is required.
WITH the Hollow Set Screws the
length of each size is all that is re-
quired for any depth of hole, and thus by
eliminating sizes they are much cheaper
in the aggregate than the old style screws.
Short screws do not lose lead of thread as do long ones. By putting two screws in a hole they
are locked and the thread strain is equalized.
Deep holes need be threaded at bottom only.
Hollow screws can be sealed against rust and wet by filling the hole with wax or oil.
Hollow Set Screws have passed the experimental stage. Several thousands of firms have
tested them and found them advantageous in a great many ways.
Send for Circular No. 2074 and Samples.
Diameter        Thread        Length
%-inch        16        %.inch        -,
3J -Inch        12 and 13        &-inch
SHAFT        %-Inch        11        H-inch
X-Inch        10        %s-inch
Hammacher,        Schlemmer & Co.
New York since 1848.
4th Ave. and 13th St.        (Block South of Union Square.
They are made in sizes, shapes and styles for every purpose by expert workmen who do
nothing but make cutters
and from the finest obtainable material.
- "Athol Quality" is our watchword and we know we are making cutters unequaled in quality,

October 18, 1906.        AMERICAN MACHINIST        79
18' x 8' (51n Centers) Mounted in Pan
Can be fitted with Taper Attachment, Relieving Attachment, Draw-in Attachment and Watch
Chucks if desired.. Sizes regularly manufactured are 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 32^, swing.
THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., Torrington, Conn., U. S. A.
Or the following rnited States Agents:—Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York, Boston,
Pittsturg, Chicago, Philadelphia: J. L. Osgood, Buffalo; Pacific Tool & Supply Co., can
Francisco, Cal.; W. P. Pattison Machinery Co., Cleveland, Ohio: J. W. Wright & Co., St. Louis :
Syracuse Supply Co., Ltd., Syracuse: W. P. Dacis Machine Co.. Rochester: Scott Supply &
Tool Co., Denver: Smith-Courtney Co., Richmond, Vu.;R. B. Whitacre & Co., St. Paul.
European Agents =-Schuchardt & Schulte, Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, St. Petersburg; A. H.
Schutte, Soln, Paris, Brussels, Barcelona, Milan; Ch.... ChurchCl h Co., Ltd., London,
Birmiogbam : Stussi & Zweifel, Italy; Takata & Co., Japan.
4-44644444 44444+4

All Automatic Production Chuching and Turning Machine.  

For the automatic machining of duplicate castings in iron, steel or
. bronze, and forgings within 14" diameter by 7". All you have to do t is to feed it—the machine
± does the rest, and does it
$                with astonishing rapidity $
and accuracy. Considering what it will do it's very simple in construction and op- ± eration. No
skilled labor 4. required
to operate it. Send ±  t        for special bulletins. They
will show the way to real A.
7_x.14 Manufacturing Automatic.        profit.
Potter '& Johnston Machine Co., Pawtuclet, R. I., U. S. A. A.
PARIS OFFICE-78 Avenue de Ia Grand Armee; J. Ryan, Manager. NEW YORK OFrtcE-114
Liberty Street; Walter H. Footer.        .d.
Manager. CLEVELAND OFFica-309 Schofield Building. CHICAGO OYFlcE-933 Monadno ck
Block. FoRElox AG NT8—Chan. Chnre-
I11 & Co., Ltd., London, Birmingham, Manchester and Newcastle-on-Tyne. England, and
Glasgow, Scotland. A. H. Schutte, Cologn.,
t        Brussels, Liege, Milan, Barcelona. Schucbardt & Schutte, Berlin, Stockholm, Vienna. St.
Petersburg.        1
1        1

1906        AMERICAN MACHINIST 1906         79


18' x 8' (51' Centers( Mounted in Pan
Can be fitted with Taper Attachment, Relieving Attachment, Draw-in Attachment and Watch
Chucks if desired. Sizes regularly manufactured are 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 32^, swing.
THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., Torrington, Conn., U. S. A.
Or the following rnited State, Agents—Mooring, ]iaan el: S Moore, New York. Boston. Pitts:
urg, Chicago, Philade:gkia. J. L. Osgood, Buffalo; Pacific Tool & Supply Co., San Francleeo,
Cal.; W. F. Pettleon Machinery Co., Cleveland, Ohio: J. W. Wright & Co., St. Louis :Syracuse
Supply Co., Ltd, Syrecoee; W. P. Davi, Machlue Co.. Rochester. Scott Supply & Tool Co.,
Denver; Smith-Courtney Co., Birhmond. Ca.; R. B. Whitacre & Co., St. Paul, European Agents
Schuchardt d Schulte, Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, St. Petersburg; A. H. Schutte, B:oln, Paris,
Brussels, Barcelona, Milan; Chaa. Cburch1J h Co., Ltd., London, Birmingham; Stussi &
Zweifel, Italy; Takata & Co., Japan.

AllAutomatic Production Chucking and Turning Machine.
For the automatic machining of duplicate castings in iron, steel or ± bronze, and forgings
within 14" diameter by 7". All you have to do
is to feed it—the machine
does the rest, and does it l
I Y        with astonishing rapidity $
and accuracy. Considering
,_        what it will do it's very sim-
i        pie in construction and op-
I . -,        =        eration. No skilled labor
 required to operate it. Send
for special bulletins. They I ywill show the way to real
7,z14 Manufacturing Automatic.        profit.

Potter & Johnston Machine Co., Pawtucket, R. I., U. S. A.
.4        PARIS OFFICE-78 Avenue de Is Grand Armee; J. Ryan, Manager. NEW YORK OFTICE-
114 Liberty Street; Walter H. Foster. ..
4, Manager. CLEVELAND OFFICz-309 Schofield Building. CHICAGO OFFICa-933 Monadno ck
Block. FOREIGN AGENTS—chaa. Cbnrcky Ill & Co., Ltd., London, Birmingham, Manchester
and Newcastle-on-Tyne. England, and Glasgow, Scotland. A. H. cbutte, Colo(a.,
. Brussels, Liege, Milan, Barcelona. Schuchardt & Schutte, Berlin, Stockholm, Vienna, SL
Petersburg.        .4.
AMERICAN MACHINIST        October 18. 1906.
Here is our 15f Engine Lathe of the latest design; modern, practical, high grade. It will do faster,
truer work than the old one and it's cost is exceptionally low. Our catalog may be the means of
saving you a lot of money.


Double Spindle
1 his Lathe takes all classes of work up to 48'' in diameter. One spindle for small work, the
other for large. It has the capacity of Two ordir.ary Lathes, occupies floor space of one and
costs but little more than a 26" Lathe. Ask for our Catalog.
J. J. McCabe, 14 Dey St., New York City.
(has. Churchill & Co.,Ltd., London, Birmingham, Manchester and Cln=eow.
R. A. Hervey, Sidney, N. S. W., Sole Agent for Australasia.

A Large Bearing Surface Under the Head
Sebastian Lathe Co.,
117=119 Culvert St.,        Cincinnati. 0.
affords an even distribution of, pressure. Cleveland cap screws`* have this superiority over the
ordinary kind. Heads electrically welded to bodies of bar stock. Booklet tells more.
The Cleveland Cap Screw Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
Buckeye Electric
Blue Printing Machines.
"The Sun That Never Sets."
Highest in Efficiency. Lowest in Price.
Buckeye Engine Co.,
Dept. B.P.        -        SALEM, OHIO
Machine Molding
Are youup in the art ?
Did you know that you can put
1—a lot of deep work on a spot in your floor called a JOLT-RAMMING MACHINE, and ram it?
2—a deep pattern on any one of a number of Stripping Plate Machines
and all on a ,JOLT-RAMMING MACHINE and mold it?
3—a deep Drag, like a Grate Bar, on a COMBINED JOLT AND SQUEEZE RAMMING MA CHINE,
Jolt-ram the Drag aril
then squeeze the Cope upon it?
lug,' x40 Bottom Reaming Machine for Radiators.
l i" x 16" Split Pattern Vibrator Machine
We can tell you how.
molding ever known.
The E. H. Mumford
lah and Calloishill Sts.,        Philadelphia Pa.
J. W. Jackman & Co., 39 Vicu,ria street. London, S. W. W. R. Colcord Machinery Co., St. Louis

Deuble Spindle
1 his Lathe takes all classes of work up to 48'' in diameter. One spindle for small work, the
other for large. It has the capacity of Two ordir.ary Lathes, occupies floor space of one and
costs but little more than a 26" Lathe. Ask for our Catalog.
J. J. McCabe, 14 Dey St., New York City.
(has. Churchill & Co.,Ltd., London, Birmingham, Manchester and Cln=eow.
R. A. Hervey, Sidney, N. S. W., Sole Agent for Australasia.
A Large Bearing Surface Under the Head
Sebastian Lathe Co.,
117=119 Culvert St.,        Cincinnati. 0.

We make M,d power bond
`i        y,        r        f_ formiUK ey- from
e[oCk 1%Inch thick and [
/_        der        Any size e), 7 inehee
1,        --~~        ou[eide diameter and Under
Supply Co..
906 Garden City
GO .
C        IL
affords an even distribution of, pressure. Cleveland cap screws`* have this superiority over the
ordinary kind. Heads electrically welded to bodies of bar stock. Booklet tells more.
The Cleveland Cap Screw Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
Buckeye Electric
Blue Printing Machines.
"The Sun That Never Sets."
Highest in Efficiency. Lowest in Price.
Buckeye Engine Co.,
Dept. B.P.        -        SALEM, OHIO
Machine Molding
Are youup in the art ?
Did you know that you can put
1—a lot of deep work on a spot in your floor called a JOLT-RAMMING MACHINE, and ram it?
2—a deep pattern on any one of a number of Stripping Plate Machines
and all on a ,JOLT-RAMMING MACHINE and mold it?
3—a deep Drag, like a Grate Bar, on a COMBINED JOLT AND SQUEEZE RAMMING MA CHINE,
Jolt-ram the Drag aril
then squeeze the Cope upon it?
lug,' x40 Bottom Reaming Machine for Radiators.
l i" x 16" Split Pattern Vibrator Machine
We can tell you how.
molding ever known.
The E. H. Mumford
lah and Calloishill Sts.,        Philadelphia Pa.
J. W. Jackman & Co., 39 Vicu,ria street. London, S. W. W. R. Colcord Machinery Co., St. Louis
AMERICAN MACHINIST        October 18, 1906.
Maon~ne for mai,irg
plates with high-raised
t4" letters and numbers
on Zinc or Aluminum for
Roevers Bros., 100 Schermerhorn St.,B'klyn, N.Y
Special Machinery and
Machines Built on Contract.
em bntlding special machinery, jigs and fixtures. punches and dice, cenerel machine wore, or am prepared to manufacture your
machines or tools on Contract. I have had fifteen yearsexperleece lid c•n lava you money in this line. Do not let oat any s,'crt
until you have consulted me. Send blue prints for estimate.
Chas: S. Dexter. 30 Railroad St., Attleboro, Mass.
Critchley's Patent Expanding Reamer.
G. B. CHADWICK & CO., Portsmouth. N, H.
The Albro-Clem Elevator Co.
See Issue Oct. II        PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Spicer Universal Joints
all steel, dust pre,ot, oil tight, 15 sizes and models to transmit full power of %-in. to 2-In. ehefte.
-        bmaller elzes later. Catalogue?
Spicer Universal
Joint M'f'g Co.
Plainfield, N. J. New York r,.l. r..+, uh,~l,,., 'rltO¢. .1. R r:I "%er..        I W. ICd
The Catlin is the Keyseater
That cuts accurate keyseats, and cuts costs, without cutting a fuss about it. Maywe send you the Catlin catalog? Its good reading.
23 and 25 Victoria Street, London, S.W,
----        -        -- have been look
- - -        --_ Ing for."
-        -        -        - -        Strongest and
most durable.
Made of the
best steel and o t e work right. Sen for description and price.
MUTUAL MACHINE CO.        Hartford, Conn.
suropeaa ACta: OW Barton, Ort®thek Co., Lud.ate 1.5, London
with  NOoton-corrosive Soldering Fluid.
Dealers, or direct.
Elliott Chemical Works, Newton, Mass,
UMApMachlneScrewEW CO. MM.An andStuds, !e.
A Victor saw saws what you wish to saw. How many saws do that? Tell us what you want
to cut and we'll send you a Victor to cut it.
r:xryrvrrrar r~r,r;rr~        .r..        .-~raii:i.r: rr,        .. .
Massachusetts Saw Works, Chicopee, Mass.
London Store, 8 White St., E. C.        New York Store, 56 Reade St.
StarK Bench Lathes
:tr., as accurate as lathes can he—have been built that __ way for forty-three years.
And our guarantee is one that is worth same- thing. Catalogue No. 29 on request.
Waltham, Mass.,        U.S.A.
If You're Not Using Reece Die —_        -        -Stochs, with the Patent Adjust-
able Guides you're certainly missingagood
thing. It's fully explained in
our free catal' aandwe'reonlywaitingforyouradd.ess.        ~J        ~
The E, F. Reece Co., Iowellsst•, Greenfield, Mass.        _~ 3~•E~
_ 'Tis a rapid producer of accurate work. You don't need to take our word for It—we'll send you one for a test in your own shop.
That's our way of proving its merits.
SHAPERS 14 in. to 32 in. stroke.
Crank and Triple-Geared.
JOHN STEPTOE SHAPER CO., Cincinnati, Ohio.
A Bolt Cutter is much like a man in this:
THE HEAD is nearly everything.
1. SIMPLICITY: Only Four Parts,cuneequently, 2: GREAT DURABILITY. Few repairs needed.
2. SQUARE BEARII'G OF THE DIES IN THE RING, coc equently, 4: SOLIDITY OF TH k: Dial L1KE A SOLID DIE, consequently, 5:
UNIFORMITY OF THE PRODUCT. Bolts all the came e1re. 6: EFFECTIVENESS OF OPERATION: Cheapest Help can Understand
and Ron It.
The ii. B. Brown Company, Box A, East Hampton, Conn.
12 to 32 In. Stroke.        Manufactured Exclusively.
Glnclnnati, Ohio, U.S.A.
which is half again as efficient as the ``next best," and iu        which will neither heat or glaze, is a pretty desirable wheel to have.
Our wheels are that kind. Bettergetthe Catalog.
Shepard Sells Satisfaction Every Time
Lathes, for power, 9" to 3o" swing.        Al— Foot Fewer He Sells
Lathes, Hand Power
Shapers, for power, 12~~ to 24i~ swing. shaper,, Machinists' A Tool.
auppltes,, Chucks,
I)riils,        for power, Id to 4oi~ swing. D ea, Emer- wneele, Catalog No. 12
Planers, for power, i6" to 24/f swing. '`        is Free.
Shepard Lathe Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.        -_ l . T3
2500 RPM.
October 18, 1906.        -AMERICAN MACHINIST
Even if accuracy doesn't appeal to you, a
Landis Grinder will still interest you
for the, sole reason of economy, because a Landis is capable of producing finished pieces—whether accuracy is required or not
—faster and cheaper than by any other way, whether you use soft or hard steel, cast iron, brass, rubber or any other material.
We can send you illustrations and diagramsof work done on a Landis showing dimensions, amount removed, or we'll take
apiece of your work, finish it and send the work and a report to ycu. That will help you decide what a Landis will do for you.
Get a Catalog first—if you wish.
LANDIS TOOL CO., Waynesboro, Pa., U. S. A.
AGENTS—w. E. Flanders. 309 Schofield Building, Cleveland. Ohio, and 933 Monadnock B lk., Chicago, Ill. Walter H. Foster Co,
114 Liberty St., New York. C. W. Burton, Griffiths & Co., London. Schuchardt & Schutte. Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm. St. Petersburg.
Alfred H. Schutte, Cologne, Brussels, Liege, Paris, Milan and Bilbao. A. R. Williams Machinery Co., Toronto. Williams & Wilson,
Montreal. Canada.
Warner & Swasey Turret
Lathes always
Represent all that makes for QUALITY in machine tools—Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathes represent the highest development in
this class of machine tools.
The detailed particulars are interesting—should interest you Will be set.- upol . request—or representative will call.
The Warner & Swasey Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. A.
Turret Lathes—Screly Machines— Brass Working Tco,s
FOREIGN AGENTS—Chas. Churchill & Co.. London, Birmingham, Manchester, Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glasgow. Schuchardt &
Schutte, Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg. Alfred B. Schutte, Cologne, Paris, Brussels and Milan. H \\
Toronto. Williams and Wilson, Montreal.
October 18, 1906.        AMERICAN  MACHIINIST        69

"The most popular Hand
(feed) Milling Machine on
the Market."
Certain prominent Amer-
ican Manufacturers have
more than 50 in use and a
large number of con-
cerns have in operation
from 12 to 25.
Thousands of milling
operations are being made
on expensive Power Feed
Millers which could be done
quicker and to better ad-
vantage on this tool costing
half the money.
Order now for delivery in
March and April, 1907.
Tom .
"Whitney" Chains, Hand (feed) Milling Machines and
The Woodruff Patent System of Keying are Standard with
many of the Leading Manufacturers of machinery, auto-
mobiles, etc.
:i:i TT
The Woodruff Patent System
of Keying is more mechanical,
more efficient and also a great
labor-saving device.
=        The Whitney
H T T N. E y        Mf . Co.
Hartford, Conn.
Patented        _i        i
which can be done on a Jones & Lamson 2 In. x 24 In. Turret Lathe. Estimates promptly given
on receipt of specifications or samples.

Stirling hack saw Blades Diamond tool Co.
The New Machine Co.DCorin.
STOP TIME        WASTING.        
R by na.4e tnr.c cleaning out r ..lut>                
in your machine tools before each new                it        III
job goes on the machine?        LANG'S                
'T" BOLTS can be put where needed                
after work is set on machine.        Stop                
time wasting.        Try        least     write us.                
G. R. Lang        Co., Meadville, Penn.        ~tl
Jf u'ue Stever ,dead

exracts Yrom Chordal's letters,"
Read it with the idea that you're going to get equal parts of instruction and entertainment, and
plenty of both, and you'll not be disappointed.
Chordal has the happy faculty of seeing things not always altogether visible or
understandable to others, and getting something out of them that can be turned to profitable
account by those who lack his keen insight and analytical powers.
Chordal the business man and Chordal the mechanic sometimes see things from opposite
points of view, but eventually get together on a common basis of mutual advantage.
The Chordal brand of philosophy is a good one for every-day use—tends to minimize friction
in or out of the shop--lubricates the ways of business
"Extracts From Chordal's Letters" should be helpful, either directly or by suggestion, to every
mechanic and to every business man, no matter what his business.
Its popularity is attested by the fact that we have been obliged to print the eleventh edition.
"Extracts From Chordal's Letters" contains within a substantial cover of red and gold 396
pages of good paper, printed in clear type, 20 full-page illustrations, and the price, postpaid, is
only $2.00.
It's a most excellent book to put into the hands of employees--makes them think along the
right lines—makes them worth more to themselves and their employers. Thousands of copies
have been used in that way and thousands more will be.
By all means read "Chordal's Letters," and get our book catalog so you'll know where to send
your technical book orders for prompt and proper attention.
Y ill 9ublishing 'ompanq,
505 Pearl Street, New York.
Pratt & Whitney Company
October 18.1906.        AMERICA\ MACHINIST        497-
so is the diameter to the circumference," others simply, "3 times the diameter plus one seventh
the diameter." Then again others use the simple rule of "3 times the inside diameter plus 3
widths of the iron." The writer's method is to use the constant 3.1416 multiplied by the diameter
of the ring at the neutral axis of the bar. The above methods are practically correct measuring
from the center of the metal,
but they do not give the short and long
side of the straight bar as shown at Figs. 1, 2 and 3. I, as well as others, have :searched
mathematical and mechanical books for formulas that would give the

—, FIG.I
'different functions of a ring that has been bent from a heated bar of iron of given dimensions. I
could not find anything bearing on the subject; consequently, Mr. Harkins, my assistant
foreman, who !s an expert mathematician, and myself, under-
took to solve the problem and we have
fully demonstrated and proved the resulting formula by experiments in actual practice.
Fig. I represents a ring bent from a bar -of iron 2 inches wide by i inch thick.
The usual custom of the practical black-
smith is to cut the bar to the length pro-
duced by the constant 3.1416 multiplied by the diameter of the ring and guess at the
angle to cut the end of the bar. Often-
times after the ring is bent, the inside will meet, leaving an opening on the outside, or if cut in
excess, similar conditions
obtain on the inside.        In nearly all
cases the smith will cut his iron long and trim it to the proper shape after bending. The formula
herewith is simple and will give the angle to which the end of the bar should be cut before
bending. It states that the difference between the long and short diameters divided by their sum
multiplied by the width of the iron will

FIG. 2
give the required angle. The result in all
cases should be added to the length pro-
duced by the above formula and the angle cut as shown at Fig. I. If the ring is not to be welded,
the ends will come together forming a perfect joint.
It will be observed from Fig. I that the metal changes its shape in bending. The
inside circumference of Fig. i is 18.8496
inches. The length to produce the circumference is, as shown, 24.6328 inches, or
5.7832 inches in excess of the inside cir-
cumference of the finished ring. The reverse conditions exist in the outside of
the ring. The actual length of the straight bar is 5.7832 inches shorter than the actual outside
circumference of the
ring, consequently the surplus metal has to be accounted for on the inside of the
ring and diminished on the outside. The extra metal increases the thickness of the inside of the
ring as shown at I and de-
creases the thickness of the outside as
shown at L. Oftentimes the smith has to make rings in sections as shown in Fig. 4. for which the
same formula will apply to the angle projections in the straight bar. The usual custom of the
smith is to guess at the angle when forging the projections
in the straight bar•and set the ends prop-
erly after the section of the ring is bent. The formulas are correct if the rings are bent at an even
temperature and the metal has the same tensile and compressive strength. Practically the metal
has about equal tensile and compressive strength at a bright red heat. When making rings from
uneven shaped iron such as T, or channel sections, the formula 3.1416 multiplied by the
diameter must be figured from
the neutral axis of the bar.
Fig. I shows a ring of 6 inches inside diameter produced from a 1x2-inchbar, and Fig. 2 a ring of
the same inside diameter produced from a 2-inch square bar. The dimensions given by the
formula correspond to the dimensions of similar rings produced in actual practice.
Very few smiths realize that the length
of the short side of the straight bar in a
6-inch ring 2 inches wide is 5.7832 inches longer than the inside circumference of the ring and
the long side as much shorter than the outside circumference. One of our members considered
it a loss of time and energy to solve the ring problem, bu* if the formula presented herewith
proves of any benefit to my fellow craftsmen I shall consider myself well paid for the time I have
used in solving the ring problem. The formula to give 7 is all that is required, as what J is more
than K, L is less than K. The foregoing formula applies to diameters between i inch and to feet.
For large radii or railroad curves, the functions would he almost infinity.

According to the United States consular reports there are under the subject of
metals a number of increases in the pro-
posed new tariff of Japan. The raise in block and ingot copper is from 5 to 7% per cent, and a
general increase in all manufactured copper. Lead ingot raised
from .316 sen to .38 sen per loo kin.
The lead imports from the United States in 1904 were $209,000 gold. Mercury raised to 7.20 yen
per ioo kin. Mercury imports from the United States in 1904 were $90,250
gold. Zinc raised from 4o sen per too kin to 72 sen per loo kin. Machinery for
metal working raised from to to 15 per
cent. ad valorem. It is proposed to in-
crease the tariff on watches from 30 per
cent, present rates to 5o per cent, ad
• 1906 •  NEWS
There is a new era on the high seas for Britain an Europe.
The HMS Dreadnought launched. It boasts 10
giant 12-inch guns. Some fear the launch of the ship
will speed up the arms race between England and
Germany. (To you hopefully more machine work.)

San Francisco rocked by gigantic earthquake.
on 19 APRIL At 5:13 am
The most disastrous earthquake ever to hit this beauritul
coastline. Huge and devastating fires caused by broken
gas mains are now raging out of control all over. At least
1000 people are feared dead.

Kellogg's breakfast cereal company
Toasted Corn Flake Company starts to market a new kind
of crunchy cereal invented by accident.