Working-in-a-1880s-Machine-shop,Re-live 1880, Why I buy
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Nineteenth_Century-Machine-shop_Harpers weekly 1870s
life long ago.
How he Built Your
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created. How you
just technology to
skill but to be
be creative as
they were, as
they had to be.
Learn how the
past gives hints to
Explore all the
Learn to operate
A JOURNAL FOP MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS, BOILED MAKERS
VOL. 3, No. I
28.1 NEW YORK, JULY 1
The Gardner Machine Gun.(GATTINING GUN VARIANT)
The application of machinery to almost every occupation of life is making remarkable progress in all
civilized countries. In devising and improving machines for human destruction no lack of effort has
been observed, and the
results in this direction tend to render wars more " short, sharp and decisive" than ever before. It is
hard to conceive how men exposed in action to the terrible fire of such a weapon as the Gardner
Machine Gun can withstand the conflict even a short space of time. The original gun was invented
by William Gardner, Toledo, 0., in 1874. In the following year arrangements for the construction of the
gun were made with The Pratt & Whitney Company, Hartford, Conn., who are now the manufacturers
and owners of the patent. The U. S. army and navy departments have made at different times the
most thorough t ials of this weapon, the first being in November, 18775. and the last a few weeks
ago. In all of these trials it has shown wonderfully successful results.
It has been greatly improved
since the first trial, one of the
principal changes being the adop-
BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN MAKERS AND BLACKSMITHS
0, 1880. $3.00 per Annum
SINGLE COPIER. 6 CENTS.
front case and made fast with a taper pin. The rear case extends from rear barrel ring far enough to
contain all lock parts, together with the driving crank and safety stop. A swinging cover, hinged at
forward end of case, is firmly locked in position by a cascabel, having a screw thread cut on its stem
that enters the rear case. When the cover is raised, which can be quickly done after turning back the
cascahel, all the working parts of the gun are fully exposed; and should an accident occur, like the
bursting of cartridge heads, or derangement of locks, the trouble can be instantly discovered, and as
quickly remedied. The band crank that operates the gun is pinned fast to the main crank, which is
supported by journal boxes. The boxes are locked into the rear case, and serve as a protection to
the swinging cover from side thrusts. The body of main crank is circular, having journals or crank
pins for opetating the locks, diametrically opposite each other (the firing being alternate), and
eccentric euanklt to give the required motion to the locks as they are moved forward and back,
driving in cartridges and withdrawing hells. The outer portion of crank pins or journals are flattened
the first being in Novemner. 1880, and the last a few weeks ago. I
of these trials it has show now wonderfully successful results.
It has been greatly improved since the first trial, one of the
principal changes being the adoption of Parkhurst's simple and
efficient feeding apparatus. The Gardner Machine Gun.(GATTINING GUN VARIANT)
The system of swinging levers (known as the Gardner system), that transfer the cartridge from the
feed guide to the perforated plate, with the help of gravity, have been superseded by a system that
positively carries the cartridge to its place, and retains the shell in position until it is ejected.
We present on this page and the one following, engravings of the gun as lately improved.
The improved Gardner gun, as shown on tripod and carriages, consists of two simple breech
loading rifled barrels, placed parallel to each other, about 1.4" apart, in a case or compartment.
These two barrels are loaded, fired and relieved of shells by one revolution of the hand-crank. The
working of the gun is simple. One man inserts the heads of cartridges projecting from
a feed block into a feed
guide, drawing the block
from the cartridges; an-
other man turns the crank,
by which the gun is fired,
and, as the cartridges dis-
appear down the feed The Gardner Machine Gun.(GATTINING GUN VARIANT) guide, their
supplied from another block; in this manner bered at the rear to admit a flanged center the firing may
be made continuous. The fire metallic cartridge. The barrels are I~arrels are open from end to end,
and chain- ! firmly screwed into a rear barrel ring, whicheing alternate), and eccentric enongh to give
motion to the locks as they are moved forward and back, dTiving
in cartridges and withdrawing shells. The outer portion of crank pins or journals are flattened
to the circle of the periphery of
main crank for the pur-pose of holding the lock stationary while firing,
about one-fifth part of revolution of hind-crank, and allowing ample time for hang tires. The lock in
form resembles the letter U, having an extension from its side, which contains the firing pin, main
(spiral) spring, sector or spring compressor, sector-sleeve, extractor, and lock head. The U part of
the lock, that works under and around the crank pin, is curved at the inner front to correspond with
the outer circle of the crank; the office of the curved front being to hold the lock in position for firing.
The circular firing pin is flattened a portion of its length near the front end, to allow it to pass under
the extractor by which it is held in position. It extends from the bead of the lock through the
mainspring and sector sleeve, terminating in a flange or head, for locking into a sear. The sear,
having the form of a bell crank, pivoted in the center to
c MOUNTED ON NAVY Cixxiau & the lock, holds the firing pin securely, and prevents
is pinned fast to the rear case, and the muz- . it from touching the cartridge until it is rezles pass
through another similar ring called leased from its hold by the action of the front barrel ring, which is
fitted into the i crank journal when the lock is in its extreme
Wages and pay in machine shops 1879.
Chas. Ervien & Co.. Philadelphia, Pa., pay machinists $2 to $2.50 per day, averaging
$2.25. blacksmiths average $2.2$; helpers, $1.25, and boilermakers, $2.
Wm. T. Bate & Son, Conshohocken, Pa., pay machinists and boilermakers from $10 to
$14 per week, and helpers $8 to $9.