WWl
WORLD WA
R ONE.
THE GREAT WAR.
The war to end all wars they said.
The Wasted, pointless War, except that it
set the Basis for future modern
mechanical WARS.
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THE NATIONS AT WAR        187
4
Flemish cities in a Iand full of artistic towns. But lying as it did for some time between the Allied and the
German line and occupied in turn by either belligerent, it suffered cruelly. Its grand square, or Place de la
Ville, had long been one of the show places of Europe. One side was formed by the famous Cloth Hall, built
at a time when trades unions were accustomed to house their places of business in buildings on which no
artistic effort was spared, and on another by the Gothic cathedral dating from the thirteenth century. Both
were practically demolished. The town itself was depopulated, its people flee-
ing farther into France from the continuous rain of shells. The town itself had no
particular strategic or defensive,.;        value. It suf- fered merely " because it lay in the very middle of the
country for •,, .~! "- which the enemies were so savagely fighting. That fighting was continuous for months.
Its chronol- d s ogy presents a ' ,        monotonous •ka                 series of suc- cesses and re-
_ pulses, attacks and counter-attacksoneither side. Hill 6o, taken early in Every French soldier carries a respi-
the action b rator in his pocket,        te ,, if there is an attack        by by gases        ' the British,
was the object of almost constant German counterattacks without success. The west bank of the Ypres
Canal, on which the Allies had established themselves, was another point of constant fighting begin- ping
as early as the 22d of April when the Allies were driven from it with a loss of 6,000 prisoners and thirty-five
guns. By the 2d of May the German General Staff admitted a loss of iz,000 dead in the Battle of Ypres.
By this time the diplomatic representatives of both sides were making fierce accusations and counter-
accusations as to the character of warfare employed by their enemies,
Both had by this time come to use asphyxiating gases both in shells and hand grenades. The French
employed a device for spraying flaming li- quids on the German         trenches, de     l
claring in re        r sponse to the criticisms of        t humane ob- servers that        f it was done ^~
~
by way of re- pr1sa1. To    
7- the northeast of Ypres on  one occasion the Germans.         f -
before attack-Y: -. -~Y         t:
ing the British rolled  a huge cloud of as-  phyxiating" gas toward their lines,the volume of
fumes being Scene in the first-line trenches, where forty feet high papers, particularly illustrar ones, are
along a six- much in demand .- rT;;;:        i__•
The new model French soldier. Besides his rifle and regular e
Pg 186 The Nations at was 1914.
A gerrman steel Turret for trench
warfare.
see above for the links to all pictures and descriptions of machine tools
Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co.of Providence, R.I. manufacturer of Fine Machinery, Tools of Precision; The Gordon & Maxwell Co. of Hamilton, Ohio
manufacturer of Steam Driven Pumps and Water Works Machinery; The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. of Stamford, Conn. manufacturer of Steam Driven
Self-Propelled or Locomotive Cranes; Lodge, Davis & Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Shapers & Drills; Gould & Eberhardt of Newark,
New Jersey manufacturer of Shapers, Gear Cutters and other Special Machinery; E.E. Garvin & Co. of New York, NY. manufacturer of Machinists' Tools,
Including Milling Machines, Hand Lathes, Drill Presses, ect.; The Pratt & Whitney Co. of Hartford Connecticut manufacturer of Precision Machinist Tools and
Special Machinery; The Billings & Spencer Co. of Hartford, CT. manufacturer of Lathe Dogs & other Drop Forgings; Warner & Swasey Machine Tools of
Cleveland, Ohio manufacturer of Engine, Spinning Lathes and other Special Machinery; Pond Machine Tool Co.(Successors to David W. Pond) of Worcester,
Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Radial Drills, Planers, ect.; Geo. W. Fifield of Lowell, Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes; Hartford Steam Boiler
Inspection & Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn.; Geo. B. Grant of Boston, Mass. maker of Gear Wheels and Gear Cutting; W.P. Davis of Bloomfield, NY.
manufacturer of Key Seating Machines & Drills; The G. A. Gray Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of 17" & 20" Lathes; Pratt & Letchworth Proprietors of
Buffalo Steel Foundry of Buffalo, N.Y. offering Steel Castings; Stiles & Parker Press Co. of Middletown, Conn. manufacturer of Punching Presses, Dies, Drop
Hammers, Drop Forgings and other Tools for the Manufacture of all kinds of Sheet Metal Goods; J.M. Carpenter of Pawtucket, R.I. manufacturer of Taps &
Dies; WM Sellers & Co., Inc. of Philadelphia, PA. manufacturer of High Speed Power Traveling Cranes; The Long & Allstatter Co. of Hamilton, Ohio
manufacturer of Double, Single, Angle-bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and Steam-Driven Punches & Shears also Power
Cushioned Hammers; Russell & Co. of Massillon, Ohio builders of Automatic Engines, Boilers, ect.(Complete Power Plants Furnished); J.E. Lonergan & Co. of
Philadelphia, PA. manufacturer of Patent Oilers; R.A. Beldon Co. of Danbury, Conn. manufacturer of Power Hammers; Castle Engine Works of Indianapolis,
Ind. manufacturer of The Castle Steam Engine; The Muller Machine Tool Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of 17" Engine Lathes; H. Bickford of Lake
Village, N.H. manufacturer of Boring & Turning Mills; L.S. Starrett of Athol, Mass. manufacturer of Fine Machinist Tools; Osgood Dredge Co. of Albany, New
York manufacturer of Dredges, Excavators, Ditching Machines, Derricks, ect.; The Newark Machine Tool Works of Newark, N.J. manufacturer of Planners,
Lathes, Slotters, Boring Machines, Presses, ect.; Bement, Miles & Co. of Philadelphia, PA. builders of Metal-Working Machine Tools for Railroad Shops,
Locomotive & Car Builders, Machine Shops, Rolling Mills, Steam Forges, Ship Yards, Boiler Shops, Bridge Works, ect.; Detrick & Harvey Manufacturers of
Baltimore, Md. manufacturer of Corliss Engines; Chester Steel Castings Co. of Chester, PA.; The Phosphor Bronze Smelting Co., Limited of Philadelphia, Pa.
Original Manufacturers of Phosphor Bronze & Owners of the U.S. Patent; Tallman & McFadden of Philadelphia, Pa. manufacturer of Milling Machines,
Planners, Drills, ect.; The John T. Noye Mfg. Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. manufacturer of Rice Automatic Cut-Off Engines (Gold Medal Winner Cincinnati Exposition,
1884); Shipman Engine Co. of Boston, Mass. manufacturer of Oil Engines for Printers, Steam Yachts, pumping water, sawing wood, ect; The Skinner Engine
Co. of Erie, PA. manufacturer of Portable & Stationary Engines & Boilers; Korting Gas Engine Co., LD. of New York, N.Y. manufacturer of Korting Gas
Engines; William Tod & Co. of Youngstown, Ohio manufacturer of Porter-Hamilton Engines; S.L. Holt & Co. of Boston, Mass offering Portable & Stationary
Steam Engines & Boilers, Steam Power Drainage Pumps, Saw Mills, Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers and Belting; Kensington Engine Works, Limited of
Philadelphia< Pa. manufacturer of the Tangye Buckeye Automatic Cut-Off Engines; Albany Steam Trap Co. of Albany, NY manufacturer of Blessing's Water
Circulator & Purifier; Frick Company Builders of Waynesboro, Pa. manufacturer of Eclipse Corliss Engines; The "Otto" gas Engine Works - Schleicher,
Schumm & Co. of Philadelphia, PA. & Chicago, Ill. manufacturer of Otto Gas Engines; The Armstrong Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Conn manufacturer of Water,
Gas & Steam Fitters' Tools; James Brandon Co. of New York, N.Y. manufacturer of Brandon's Piston Ring Packing; E.P. Bullard of New York, NY manufacturer
of Machine Tools; The Watts, Campbell Co. of Newark, NJ manufacturer of Improved Corliss Steam Engines; The Hewes & Phillips Iron Works of Newark, N.J.
manufacturer of Improved Corliss Engines, Tubular Boilers; The Fishkill Landing Machine Co. of New York, New York manufacturer of The Improved Fishkill
Corliss Engines; Robert Whitehill of Newburgh, NY manufacturer of the Improved Corliss Engine, Slide Valve Engines, Stationary Boilers, General Machinery
and Brass & Iron Castings; Stearns M'F'G. Company of Erie, Pa. manufacturer of Engines, Boilers, Saw Mills and General Machinery; John McLaren of
Hoboken, N.J. builder of Corliss Engines, Air Compressors and Boilers; Hill, Clarke & Co. of Boston, Mass. sellers of Iron-Working Machinery; Adams & Richards
Machine Co. of New Brunswick, N.J. manufacturer of Fuel, Crude Petroleum or Kerosene Engines; The Babcock & Wilcox Co. of New York, NY manufacturer
of Water-Tube Boilers; Bridgeport Boiler Works of Bridgeport, Conn. manufacturer of The Lowe Boiler; WM T. Bate & Son of Conshohocken, Penn. sole
manufacturer of the Bate Steam Generator; The Wainwright M'F'G. Company of Boston, Mass. manufacturer of Corrugated Tube Exhaust Feed-Water Heaters;
Fossil Meal Co. of New York manufacturer of Meal Composition Non-Conducting Covering for Steam Pipe & Boilers; Gesswein Machine Co. of New York
manufacturer of Positive Pressure or Blast Blowers; Palmer, Cunningham & Co., L'd. of Philadelphia, Penn. manufacturer of Tools for Mechanics including
Chucks, Drills, Reamers, Screw-Plates, Railroad Supplies, ect.; Evansville Spar Mining Co. of Evansville, Ind. Producers of Flour Spar Foundry Flux; Universal
Radial Drill Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of Radial Drilling Machines; Hilles & Jones of Wilmington, Del. manufacturer of Horizontal Flange Punches;
Jenkins Bros. of New York manufacturer of The Original Unvulcanized Packing; Westcott Chuck Co. of Oneida, N.Y. manufacturer of Lathe & Drill Chucks;
Pond Engineering Co. of St. Louis, MO. manufacturer of Steam Boilers; The E. Horton & Son Co. of Windsor Locks, Conn. manufacturer of the Horton Lathe
Chuck; Watson & Stillman of New York manufacturer of Hydrostatic Machinery, Presses, Pumps, Punches, Accumulators, Jacks, Valves, Fittings, Vault
Elevators, ect.; Hoggson & Pettis M'F'G. Co. of New Haven, CT. manufacturer of The Sweetland Chuck; T.R. Almond of Brooklyn, N.Y. manufacturer of the
Almond Drill Chuck; Worcester Machine Screw Co. of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Set, Cap & Machine Screws, Studs, ect.; The Cushman Chuck Co. of
Hartford, Conn. manufacturer of "Cushman" Chucks; Coffin & Leighton of Syracuse, N.Y. manufacturer of Machinists' Scales; Sterling Emery Wheel Co. of
West Sterling, Mass. manufacturer of the Sterling Patent Emery Wheel; Standard Tool Co. of Athol, Mass. manufacturer of Fine Machinists' Tools; Buffalo
Forge Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. manufacturer of Buffalo Cupola & Forge Blowers; I.P. Richards of Providence, R.I. manufacturer of Punches and Dies; The National
Pipe Bending Co. of New Haven, Conn. offering Coils & Bends of Iron, Brass and Copper; John S. leng of New York manufacturer of Weldless Cold Drawn
Steel Tubes & Quick Opening Gate Valves; Pedrick & Ayer of Philadephia, Pa. manufacturer of Cylinder Boring & Facing Machines; Morse Twist Drill and
Machine Company of New Bedford, Mass. manufacturer of Solid & Shell Reamers, Beach's Patent Self-Centering Chuck, Bit Stock Drills, Drill Grinding
Machines, Mill Cutters and Special Tools; Simonds Rolling-Machine Co. of Fitchburg, Mass. manufacturer of Steel Balls for Anti-Friction Bearings; VanDuzen
& Tift of Cincinnati, Ohio makers of Complete Steam Pumps; Rollstone Machine Co. of Fitchburg, Mass. manufacturer of Wood - Working Machinery for Chair,
Furniture & Cabinet Factories, Box Shops, Planing Mills, Pattern Makers' Use, ect.; S. Elliot of Newton, Mass. manufacturer of Drill Presses, Tap Drill Guages &
Special Machinery Tools; F.E. Reed of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Hand Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Drills & Milling Machines; S.
Ashton Hand Mfg. Co. of Toughkenamon, Pa. manufacturer of Engine Lathes; Boynton & Plummer of Worcestor, Mass. manufacturer of Shaping Machines for
Hand & Power; Bickford Drill Co. of Cincinnati, O. manufacturer of Upright Drills; Springfield Glue & Emery Wheel Co. of Springfield, Mass. manufacturer of
Emery & Curundum Wheels, Emery Wheel machinery and Flint Papers; Pancoast & Maule of Phil., Pa. makers of Improved Steam Glue Heaters; Jos. Dixon
Crucible Co. of Jersey City, N.J. manufacturer of Dixon's Silica Graphite Boiler-Front & Smoke Stack Paint; New Haven Manf'g Co. of new Haven, Conn.
manufacturer of Iron-Working Machinery; L.W. Pond Machine Co. of Worcestor, Mas. manufacturer of Iron Working Machinery; J. Wyke & Co. of E.Boston,
Mass. manufacturer of Fine Machinists' Tools; Cary & Moen of New York City manufacturer of Steel Wire & Springs; William Barker & Co. of Cincinnati, O.
manufacturer of Iron & brass Working Machinery; Toledo Machine & Tool Co. of Toledo, Ohio manufacturer of Presses, Dies & Special Machinery; D.
Sounders' Sons of Yonkers, N.Y. manufacturer of Steam & Gas Fitters hand Tools; Acme Machinery Co. of Cleveland, O. manufacturer of "ACME" Single &
Double Automatic Boltcutters; Stow Manfg. Co. of Binghampton, N.Y. manufacturer of Flexible Shafts, Reaming Machines, Portable Drills & flexible Boring
Machines; John Steptoe & Co. of Cin., Ohio manufacturer of Engine Lathes, Iron Planers, Shapers & Drills; The Hoppes Mfg. Co. of Springfield, O.
manufacturer of Live Steam Feed-Water Heater & Lime Extractors; Energy MFG. Co. of Phil., Pa. manufacturer of Drill Guides & Steady Rests; Eagle Anvil
Works of Trenton, N.J. manufacturer of the Fisher Double Screw Leg Vise & the Eagle Anvil; Charles Murray of New York Engraver of Wood; S.W. Goodyear of
Waterbury, CT. manufacturer of Machinery for Reducing & Pointing Wire; The Laidlaw & Dunn Co. of Cin., Ohio manufacturer of Pumping Machinery; Chas.
A. Strelinger & Co. of Detroit, Mich. manufacturer of Fine Tools; Powell Planer Co. of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Iron Planers; P. Blaisdell & Co. of
Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Machinists' Tools; Curtis & Curtis (Successors to Forbes & Curtis) of Bridgeport, Ct. manufacturer of the Forbes Pat. Die Stock,
Pipe Cutting & Threading Machinery; Brehmer Bros. of Phil., PA. manufacturer of Bevel Gears; The Mason Regulator Co. of Boston manufacturer of
Reducing Valves; Niagara Stamping of Buffalo, N.Y. makers of Presses, Dies and Special Machinery; Consolidated Machine & Tool Works of Hastings, mich.
& Chicago, Ill. manufacturer of Presses, Dies and Canning Machinery; Bradley & Co. of Syracuse, N.Y. manufacturer of Cushioned Hammers, Heating Forges,
ect.; The Deane Steam Pump Co. of Holyoke, Mass. manufacturer of Water Works Engines & Steam Pumping Machinery; The Hendey Machine Co. of
Torrington, Conn. manufacturer of Lathes; Miller, Metcalf & Parkin, Crescent Steel Works of Pittsburgh, PA. suppliers of Die Steel in Bars or Blocks; Tower &
Lyon (Successors to Melvin Stephens) of New York manufacturer of Stephens Vises; Sebatian, May & Co. of Cin., O. manufacturer of Foot & Power Lathes,
Drill Presses, Shapers, Band, Circular & Scroll Saws, Tools & Supplies; John W. Hudson- Madison Manufacturing Co. of Madison, Wis.; Guild & Garrison of
Brooklyn, N.Y. manufacturer of Steam, Vacuum and Filter Press Pumps & Air Compressors; Montgomery & Co. of New York manufacturer of Tools, Supp;ies &
Machinery; W.C. Young & Co. of Worcester, Mass. manufacturer of Engine, Hand & Foot Lathes; Chas. F. baker of Minneapolis, Minn. manufacturer of
Common Sense Oil Filters; Thos. H. Dallett & Co. of Phila., Pa. manufacturer of Patent Portable, Hand, Boiler-Shell & Multiple Drills; The Tanite Company of
Stroudsburg, PA. manufacturer of Tanite Emery Wheels & grinding Machines; Cooke & Co. of New York manf'r. of The Binghampton Water Motor; U. Baird
Machinery Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. manuf'r of Machinists', Pattern Makers' & Boiler Makers' Tools and Supplies; John Wiley & Sons of N.Y. Publishers of
Industrial and Scientific Works; Beecher & Peck of New Haven, Ct. manufacturer of Peck's Pat. Drop Press & Drop Forgings of Iron & Steel; Muller Machine
Tool Co. of Cincinnati, O. manuf'r of Engine Lathes, Planers, Shapers & Drill Presses; Betts Machine Company of Wilmington, Del. Builder of Drills & Metal
Working Machine Tools; Knowles Steam Pump Works of N.Y. & Boston manf'r of Improved Pumping Machinery; Niagar Machine & Tool Works of Buffalo New
York builders of Presses, Shears & other Special Mach.; Chas. Parker Co. of Meriden, Ct. manufacturer of Guns, Gun Parts, Vises, Tools, ect.; J.H. Williams &
Co. of Brooklyn, N.Y. makers of Wrenches, Tools and other Quality Drop Forgings; Gage Machine Works of Waterford, N.Y. Manuf'r of Fox Turret & speed
Lathes and Brass Finishers' Tools; E.W. Bliss Co. of Brooklyn, New York World's Largest Manufacter of Presses, Dies, Shears, Mills,Canning Equipment and
other Special Tools; Nicholson File Co. of Providence, R.I. manuf'r of Files & Rasps; Nathan Manufacturing Co. of New York manuf'r of "Gresham" Patent
Automatic Re-Starting Injector; Cleveland Twist Drill Co. of Cleveland, O. manuf'r of Drills & Reamers; National Pulley Covering Co. of Baltimore, Md. manuf'r
of Friction Pulley Covers; Fitchburg Machine Works of Fitchburg, Mass. manuf'r of Metal Working Machines; Henry Carey Baird & Co. of Phil., Pa. Industial
Publishers, Booksellers & Importers; Volney W. Mason & Co. of Providence, R.I. manuf'r of Friction Pulleys, Clutches & Elevators; P.H. & F.M. Roots of
Connersville, Ind. manuf'r of Force Blast Rotary Blowers for Foundries, Smith Shops, Pneumatic Tubes, Ventilation, ect.; Beaudry & Co.(formerly of Beaudry's
Upright Power Hammer) of Boston, mass. manuf'r of Presses, Shears, Punches & Hard Coal Heating Forges; C.F. Richardson of Athol, Mass. manuf'r of Nickel
Plated Pocket Levels; Henderson Bros. of Waterbury, CT. manuf'r of Exhaust Tumbling Barrels; C.W. LeCount of South Norwalk, Conn. manuf'r of Lathe Dogs &
other Drop Forgings; Park Mfg. Co. of Boston manuf'r of Injectors, Ejectors & Jet Apparatus; T. Shriver & Co.'s Iron Foundry of N.Y.; The Volker & Felthousen
M'F'G. Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. manuf'r of Steam Pumps; Pulsometer Steam Pump Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Steam Pumps; Hall Steam Pump Co. of N.Y. builders of
Steam Pumps; Jas. Hunter & son of North Adams, Mass. manuf'r of Clutch Pulleys & Cutt-Off Couplings; Union Stone Co. of Boston manuf'r of Emery Wheels,
Grinding Mach., Polishing & Plating Goods and Tools; Edwards Meeks of Phil. - Publisher; Gage Tool Co. of Vineland, N.J. manuf'r of Planes & Hand Tools;
Henry R. Worthington of N.Y. manuf'r of Independent Condensers; Niles Tool Works of Hamilton, Ohio manuf'r of Machine Tools; Buckeye Engine Co. of
Salem, Ohio manuf'r of engines; The Garvin Machine Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Machines & Machine Tools; Manning, Maxwell & Moore of N.Y. manuf'r of
Railway and Machinists' Tools & Supplies; Lexington Gear Works of Lex., Mass. makers of Gears; M.C. Bullock of Chicago, Ill. manuf'r of Bullock-Corliss
Engines, Diamond Drills for Prospecting, Band Friction Hoists & Mining Mach.; The Lane & Bodley Co. of Cin., Ohio manuf'r of Corliss Engines; G.S.
Woolman of New York manuf'r of Drawing Instuments; The D. Frisbie Co. of N.Y. manuf'r of Frisbie Friction Pulleys & Clutches; The Ball & Wood Co. of
Elizabeth, N.J. manuf'r of Ball Automatic Cut-Off Engines; Lackawanna Lubricating Co. of Scranton, PA. manuf'r of Grease Cups; The De Lamater Iron Works
of N.Y. manuf'r of General Machinery; Henry Warden Manufacturer of Phil., PA. manuf'r of Atkinson Cycle Gas Engines; The Hilles & Jones Co. of Wilmington,
Del. manuf'r of Machine Tools; Bement, Miles & Co. of Phil., Pa. manuf'r of Metal-Working Mach. Tools; William Sellers & Co. of Phil., Pa. manuf'r of
Machine Tolls for Working Iron & Steel; The New Process Raw Hide Co. of Syracuse, N.Y manuf'r of Raw Hide Gears; Southwark Foundry & Machine Co. of
Phil., Penn. manuf'r of Boileers, Steam Hammers, Blowing & Reversing Engines, Centrifugal Pumps, Steam Pumps & Heavy Castings; The Norton & Jones
Machine Tool Works of Plainville, Conn. manuf'r of Machine Tools & Special machinery; The Champion Blower & Forge Co. of Lancaster, Pa.; J.D. wright &
Sons of Brooklyn, N.Y.; The Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. of Cincinnati, O.; N.P. Bowsher of South Bend, Ind.; J.E. snyder of Worcester, Mass.; Edison
General Electric Company; American Gas Furnace Co. of N.Y.; Landis Bros. of Waynesboro, Pa.; Trump Bros. Machine Co. of Wilmington, Delaware; R.D.
Nuttall & Co. of Allegheny, PA.; Giant Key-Seater Co. of East Saginaw, Mich.; Light Drill Presses of Hartford, Conn.; J.E. Lonergan & Co. of Phila., Pa.;
Harrison Safety Boiler Works of Phil., Pa.; T.M. Foote Regulator Co. of Boston; Adriance Machine Works of Brooklyn, N.Y. manuf'r of Gang Slitters, Automatic
Screw Machines and Double Seamers; Samuel C. Rogers & Co. of Buffalo; Alfred Box & Co. of Phila., Pa.; Van Duzen Gas & Gasoline Engine Co. of
Cincinnati, O.; Capitol Mfg. Co. of Chicago; M.T. Davidson of Brooklyn, N.Y.; The States Machine Co. of Newark, N.J.; L. & R. Wister & Co. of Phila., PA.;
John Royle & Sons of Paterson, N.J.; Penberthy Injector Co. of Detroit, Mich.; A.J. Wilkinson & Co. of Boston; William Jessop & Sons, L'd. of Sheffield,
England; Crescent Steel Co. of pittsburgh, Pa.; .

See above for the links to all pictures and descriptions of machine tools
pg.186        THE NATIONS AT WAR 1916
The suffering endured by the victims of these two new military weapons caused bitter protest at the time and led
to an agitation, which will probably survive the war, for the adoption of an international agreement after the war
shall be over to prohibit both as inhuman and barbaric. But the course of this war has demonstrated that
international agreements are but of little service when once the guns get into action. It is more probable that
the comparatively slight military service accomplished by either the gas or the        fire will lead to the military
abandon-ment of both.        :
After the first two or three battles, .HI
in which the element of surprise and novelty gave to these weapons an especial frightful- ness, it is not recorded
that their use ever pro- duced any decisive advantage to the side employing them.
In May Ypres and the Yser River became once more the battleground. The Germans this time forced the
fighting, and their purpose was clearly to reopen the campaign for Calais which had so signally failed in the
fall. There was  savage fighting in the water-logged country, intersected by sluggish canals which attacking
parties sometimes swam under fire, at other- times crossed on rude rafts in the face of ' storm of bullets against
which it 'erred ,.        o life could endure. In theend it all came to nothing. By this time the British Army so
slowly raised and so ardu- ously drilled on the plain of Salisbury had come to be a war machine worth reckoning
with. Within the safety zone of the English Channel, fenced off from hostile craft by a picket line of destroyers
and scouts at either end, the gray transports which so lately had been gay transatlantic liners were plying back
and forth dropping on the soil of France at each trip 2,000 or more soldiers—no longer a mere mob, but men
trained in every art of war save the ultimate one of inflicting and defying death. Months before Kitchener had
said, "I don't know when this war wil'
end, but it will begin in May." May was now here and the British Army
had begun to be an effective machine. While the fighting was in progress about Ypres the Germans were mak-
ing a determined effort to capture Dunkirk on the coast of the North Sea. •        This would have served
somewhat as a consolation prize for their failure to se-cure Calais. They had in- ~i a deed captured Zeebrugge,
the port of the city of Bruges. From this town they expelled all its in- habitants and converted it into a naval
base, which was unsatisfactory be-
rench advance in Cham- cause of the shallowness one in the photograph, of the harbor. But their held a so-
millimetre gun ambitions were still centred upon either Dunkirk or
Calais. The latter began to be the target for shells dropped from Zeppelins and Taubes, and about the middle
of May a bombardment was begun of the town from a battery, the location of which never was discovered.
Aeroplanes hovering above the city directed the fire of the battery, which was very accurate. As at the time the
most advanced line of the German entrenchments was some twenty miles east of the city the shells must have
been fired from a point of even greater distance. It. was believed that the battery was a fixed one of great guns
erected upon concrete foundations near Dixmude.
More vigorous and persistent, however, was the bombardment of Ypres. Prior to the war this was one of the most
beautiful ancient
Steel turret for trench use devised by Germans. The F pagne resulted in the capture of several steel turrets like
the They were made of three-inch plate, could be revolved, and each and three gunners.
0