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FEBUARY 14, 1895       AMERICAN MACHINIST

A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS, BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN
MAKERS AND BLACKSMITHS.
VOL. 18, NO. 7.   NEW YORK, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14 1896,    93.00 per Annum.

WEEKLY.        (        SINGLE COPIES 6 CENTS.
COPYRIGHT 1895, BY AMERICAN MACHINIST PUBi.I9111NO COMPANY.        For Sale
Everyww1iere by Newsdeaters.        FNT11KED AT P09T OFFICIO, New YORK, Al SECOND
Cass MATTER.

The Borchardt Repeating Pistol.
For some time past occasional rumors have been heard of a new and very remarkable
small arm made by Ludw. Loewe & Co., of Berlin, upon what is called the Borchardt
system. There have been a few crude engravings of it published—engravings revealing
little or nothing of its construction. We take pleasure, therefore, in presenting on this and
the succeeding page, some engravings made from photographs and working drawings
which will give a pretty accurate idea of the construction of this the latest
development in firearm manufacture—an arm that is as great an improvement over the
ordinary revolver for military purposes as was the revolver over the old-time horse pistol.
In the plate of details No. 1 is the barrel, which is shown screwed into the receiver No. 84,
which latter slides in the guides on top of the grip No. 8 (19-22-60), No. 41 is the bret ch
block, No. 43 the firing bolt, and No. 47-49 is the toggle joint.
The grip No. 8 is made in one piece with the trigger guard, guides and casing for receiver
and lock mechanism, such latter portions having separate numbers for reference. No. 10
is the trigger, No. -85 the sear, No. 7 the safety piece, No. 61-67 the magazine, and No. 68-
71 the feeding spring. The magazine, which is contained within the grip, holds 8 center fire
,art.ridvea which are service while cartridges remain in the magazine.
The weight of the pistol with 6-inch (= 154 mm.) barrel is 21 pounds (= 1,250 gramme), and
with a 71-inch barrel (= 190 mm.) 2 8,1, pounds (= 1,275 gramme).
The cartridge which is 1.4 inches long (= 85 mm.) carries a projectile of 85 grains (= 5.5
gramme), and projects it at a velocity.

The  Proposed New Standard Scree Thread.
In our issues of January 3d and 24th we gave particulars of a proposed new standard
screw thread which it is thought might with advantage supersede square threads in most
cases, and the numerous forms of bastard threads in all cases.article relating to square
thread screws. We seldom make a square thread for a lathe leading screw, but make it at
an angle of 15 degrees, for the reason that we use nuts that are in halves, and are opened
and shut when in use. A leading screw should be cut of a greater depth than one-half of
the pitch. We cut our leading screws and worms the depth of a gear tooth, which is 2
pitches deep, diametral pitch, or 0.6368 of the circumference pitch. Nearly all of our small
square thread screws are cut one-half the pitch in depth, and square or with a slight
angle, only enough to permit the tool to make the sides smooth, for the reason that by
leaving the top and bottom of thread with a clearance, a perfect alignment is not
necessary. We see no reason why the same angle of 15 degrees or 141 degrees cannot be
adopted, but for good reasons the depth
should not be confined to one-half of the
pitch in all cases.


H. J. Hendey, president of the Hendey Machine Co., says:
We have been using the Brown & Sharpe
worm gauge as a standard for our lead
screws on lathes, and the feed screws on
lathes, shapers and planers, etc., and our
drawings show it was adopted in 1887. We
vary the depth of the thread to suit differ-
ent work, but the angle is always made to


the trigL,I r u:u i, gkil i s nnii casing; tor ru ceiver anal l(wk inw hnniMin, such Latter por-
tions having separate numbers for reference. No. 10 is the trigger, No. -85 the sear, No. 7
the safety piece, No. 61-67 the magazine, and No. 68-71 the feeding spring.
The magazine, which is contained within the grip, holds 8 center fire
cartridges which are brought to the front of the
breech block when the latter is moved to the rear In opening the breech, and closing the
breech places the cartridge in its proper position in the firing •chamber.
The recoil at firing drives the barrel and breech mechanism to the rear, the three friction
rolls of the rear link 51-52-58 strike
.against the curved butt and are forced downward, the middle joint of toggle is raised, and
the breech block recedes taking with it the ,empty shell by means of the extractor, No. 48,
until the ejector, No. 14, strikes ~Y        `a. the shell from below, and throws it out, and the
surplus momentum of the recoiling ports is taken up by the recoil spring, against which
the friction rolls impinge.
As soon as the recoil, which is so eased as to be
:scarcely noticeable to the
hand, is spent, the springs
draw the toggle link, No.
49, forward, and downward, the breech block pushes the uppqr'cartridge into the barrel,
and the firing bolt is arrested and held •cocked by the sear.
The action of the piece is so rapid that the ,eye cannot follow the movements, and the
eight shots can be fired before the first shell ejected has struck the ground.
The safety piece prevents accidents when the arm is not in action, otherwise the pistol is
always cocked and ready forof about 1,300 feet per second (= 400 meters).

The rifling is one turn in 10 inches (= 250 mm.), and the caliber is 0.3 inches (_
7.65 mm.).
A buttstock and cover is fitted for military purposes when required, as is also a shoulder
piece when the arm is to be used for sporting.
The plate of details on page 122 includes ill parts of the pistol.
Thinking it would be a'mtittcr of intcn;si. to tool builders, c!9pecially as well as to others,
we have asked several well-known firms and mechanics to give us their views upon the
matter. Others have volunteered opinions, and we print them below :
Mr. F. A. Pratt, president of the Pratt & Whitney Co., writing for that company,
says:
Replying to your favor of 8d inst., we notice in your issue of same date anworm gauge as
astandard for our lead screws on lathes, and the feed screws on lathes, shapers and
planers, etc., and our drawings show it was adopted in 1887. We vary the depth of the
thread to, suit different work, but the angle is always made to
the Brown & Sharpe gauge,
thus insuring a perfect
standard for all o f o u r
work.
We long since found It an advantage over the square threads in making a fit in the nut, as
it is almost impossible to do so
on a square thread, and
.r the square thread nut seems to lose its size quicker than the angle thread. We
would not under any con-
sideration go back to the
square thread on our work.
We hope this will come into general use on machine tools.
There is also another matter in this connection which we have often thought of bringing
before builders of machine tools. Why should we not have a
standard for the thread on the nose of the spindle of a
lathe, and also for the taper in the end of the spindle, and, if possible, the size of hole
through the spindle ? It is often a source of annoyance to have as
many different threads on
the lathe spindles as there
are lathes in t1w shop, and to be compelled to have separate chucks and fixtures for each
lathe. It is no advantage to the builders of
lathes for each to have a different standard
for the thread of spindle and the taper in end of spindle, and it would certainly be an
advantage to their customers to be able to buy a lathe and know that the fixtures which.
they already have in use would fit. We would be pleased to have this uuitler ventilated a,
little in your paper, and it i.v

BORCHIARDT REPEATING PISTOL.
W4
121
140        AMERICAN- MACHINIST
BROWN & SHARPE MFG. CO. PRATT & WHITNEY
PROVIDENCE, R. I.        HARTFORD, CONN.,
No 3 Surface Grinding Machines
No. 1.-7 in. x 4 in. x 4A in. No. 2.—IS in. x 6 in. x 5 in.
No. 3.-36 in. x 14 in. x 1134 in.
and 6o in. x 14 in. x zi34 in.
Catalogue describing these and other Grinding Machines, mailed on application.
Esur.o,o—BUCK & HICKMAN, 290 WhitO
--_-        cbapet Road. London, R.
_        ExnLAn~CHAS. CHLTRCHILL & CO., Ltd., 21 Cross St., Finsbury. London, E. C.
Geoo.oar—G. DIECHHANN, Ansbacherstr Berlin, W. 62.
Faavca—FENWICK FRERES & CO., 21 Rue Martel. Paris
Fn~uca—F. G. KREIITZBERGER, 140 Rue de Seville Puteaux (Seine)
C¢roeco. fu.. —FRED. A. RICH, 23 So. Canai it
T61s machine grinds work to 361n. long.14 in. wide and 11 1.2 in. high_        Saw Yonx Crre—F.
G. KRETSCHMER. 136
It is also made to grind work 60 in. long, 14 in. wide and 11 1-5 in. high.        Liberty St.. Room
503.
Solicit orders for the following machines a~
facture of bicycles:
Turret head machines and patented tools f bar or forgings. Adjustable multi-spindle n holes in
hubs and rims. Wheel construct: sprocket wheel boring and facing machines, I head threading
machines, nipple tapping mac revolving chucks.
BILLINGS'
COMMUTAK
FOR GENERATOR
Drop Forged from One Pie THE BILLINGS & SPENCER
1,hChicago Office: .17 S.
MACHINE TOOLS.
63-INCH FORCE LATHE.
THE NILES TOOL WORKS co.,
HAMILTON, OHIO.        Correspondence Solicited.
_____ JENKINS' PACKING
Is all right, so say thousands of Engineers. We have positively refused many times to cheapen
the quality to compete with ply        j        other makers. It is better to-day than w::_n fir .t p. t. on t:
_.
^' `        market 20 years ago. It is cheaper than many other kinds be-
"        cause it does not weigh as much per yard. It is honestly made, and will rlo all that any
other Packing will do and has advantages that no other has.
NEW YORK.        CHICAGO.        JENKINS BROS.        PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON.

BEMENT, MILES & CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
MANUFACTURERS OF
METAL WORKING MACHINE TOOLS
for 3AIL30AD SE02Z, L0.01=17E Al D CA3 39ILE33, MACEINE SE2S, BOLLINS MILLS, STEh :E
FC3IES, SHIP
YABLS, ECILE3 SEOPS, SBIDJE W03ES, ETC., ETC.
STEAM HAMMERS,
Steam and Hydraulic Riveting Machines.
New York Office. Taylor Building, 39 Cortland{ St.        E. H. MUMFORD, Representative.
~. A. C~W]R.,.~X_XT co.
MANUFACTURE AS AN EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY
Enc/aud—CIfAi L. ES CHUf,CfJ,'[L CO., c3 Co.ss S France—I.. XOFF O, 50 flouterrarde Richardi
1., sole, Paris.

VVAHNLK
CLEVEL.
VAt, OF
UNIVERSAI
IRON AND BRASS

UPRIGHT DRILLS,
CUTTING-OFF MACHINES,
KEY-SEATING MACHINES
AND
SPECIAL MACHINERY.
Write for Catalogue and Prices.
THE W.P. DAVIS MACHINE CO.,

PRATT & WHITNEY CO.,
HARTFORD, CONN., U. S. A.
Solicit orders for the following machines and appliances for the manufacture of bicycles:
Turret head machines and patented tools for forming hubs from the Isar or forgings. Adjustable
multi-spindle machines for drilling spoke holes in hubs and rims. Wheel constructing and
adjusting tables, sprocket wheel boring and facing machines, tube cutting machines, fork head
threading machines, nipple tapping machines, Tucker's open dies, revolving chucks.
BILLINGS' PATENT
COMMUTATOR BARS
FOR GENERATORS AND MOTORS
Drop Forged from One Piece of Unalloyed Copper.
THE BILLINGS & SPENCER CO.,        Hartford, Conn.
('Ijl,tn 0/7i': '7
PROVIDENCE, R. I.
Surf ice M:Eriz Machines
No. 1.-7 iii. x 4 in. x 4/ in. No. 2.-18 in. x 6 in. x 5 in.
No. 3.-36 in. x 14'in. x II 32 in.
and 60 in. x 14 in. x 1134 in.
MACHINE TOOLS.
63-INCH FORCE LATHE.

THE NILES TOOL WORKS co.,
HAMILTON, OHIO.        Correspondence Solicited.England—CHARLES CHURCHILL & CO., 23
Cross St., Finsbury, London, E. C.
!•rance-L. ROJ'. O, 58 Bnulevarde Richard Lenoir, !'aris.        lia-J BLOCK, Afosrnan.
pll~ :~;'        uayy        J NKINS PACKING
II        )II        I        1~I        IL        
• l        ,        Is all right, no say thousands of Engineers.        We have positively
refused many times to cheapen the quality to compete with
other makers.        It is better today than w:.-n lit F.A on t:
~lil,v        market 20 years ago.        It is cheaper than many other kinds be-
""        ""' 1i°"I        '0        cause it does not weigh as much per yard.        It is honestly made,
and will do all that any other l';,rklm;        will do and has advantages that no other has.

WARNER & SWASEY,
CLEVELAND, OHIO.
MANUFACTURERS of
+ UNIVERSAL MONITORS.
r ~        e
IRON AND BRASS WORKING MACHINERY.
-        SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.        II
I        Tne        Ashcroft        ~V        Co,,
_°        mfacttr~ng
fAt        S        11811        SFI,        .1        
I         SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF
; a         The Tabor Steam Engine Indicator,
Is        positively
all right, so say thousands JENKINS' of Engineers. We have PACKING
III        Ir        Ilyy, gnr~.y,.        nr        I„~,ip w
f 7        Ilr        VIII        +        a,
~~~1I11~I~1~~ 1~~~11~I ~~ ~~I ~I I ~!II        refused many times to cheapen the quality to compete
with
” 6X~~ II y        qty„ p~,d~m        other makers. It is better today than w:. -n Gl .t pit on t:
~H~INUI . NI        market 20 years ago. It is cheaper than many other kinds because It does not
weigh as much per yard. It is honestly made, and will do all that any other Packing will do and
has advantages that no other has.
NEW YORK.        CHICAGO.        JENKINS BROS.        PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON.

BEMENT, MILES & CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
MANUFACTURERS OF
METAL WORKING MACHINE TOOLS
for RAILROAD SHOPS, LOCOMOTIVE AND CAB DUILDEDI, MACIIINE 10111, ECLLING MILLS,
CTEAII FORCEC, CHIP
YAIIDI, BOILED 10021, BRIDGE WCDEC, ETC., ETC.
STLAM HAMMED
Steam and Hydraulic Riveting Machines.
New York Office, Taylor Building, 39 Cortlandt St.        E. H. MUMFORD, Representative.

• A. GRAY CO.
MANUFACTURE AS AN EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY
P L
Send for list containing over 700 SIZES and lengths, with illustrations.
CINCINNATI, 0., and 121 LIBERTY ST.. NEW YORK.

No. 2 TURRET LATHE.
THE GARVIN MACHINE
ssnd Reliable In- (licater Outfit, for
lndicating high or
slowspeedengh es
L `        now made. This
I        instrument re-
ceived at ' ;"lie ~
World's Colnm-  ~ blan Exposition"
r_„•        the
I „~        ~~ . •        Highest Award
-
for Excellence of jl        Design, Superior
Grade of Work-
manship and Fin- ish,Reliability and
— I yr        Efficiency. Send for
Special Pamphlet.
om e and saicsroo1ll 111 Liberty St1, New York,
J. M. ALLEN, PRESIDENT.
AVM. B. FRANKLIN, VICE-PRESIDENT. F. B. ALLEN, SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT. J. R. PIERCE,
SECRETARY & TREASURER.
THE ACME MACHINERY CO.
'I        f LFVELt VI , 401110.

Manufacturers of
ACME BOLT & RIVET HEADERS,
Acme Single and Ilouble Anioniatic        ''"I. 1• a, r"c
~""IICO        Single        I'A I. IIF.e. 4, lBB t.,
FRO.. - CllTTa'RS.         rA 1. Auu. 2c,1866. Cutting I'r++nl 1-S in. to 6 in. diameter.
Also SEPARATE HEADS and DIES.
MACHINE TOOLS AT REDUCED PRICES.
In order to reduce our stock, we offer 16", 18", 21" and 24" .engine lathes, 16", 22, 24" and 27"
planers, 10", 12" and 15" speed lathes, 15" and 20" turret lathes, at a good discount from
former prices.
We also have a few 16" and 18" second-hand engine lathes, In good order, and of our own
make.

THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., Torrington, Conn.
Manufacturer

APS DIES
TURRET LATHES
In 4 Sizes and 60 Varieties,
SCREW- MACHINES
In 5 Sizes and 68 Varieties,
Of our own Manufacture.
The LARGEST STOCK of
Metal-Working Machinery
IN NEW YORK.
Write for Complete Lint, Cataloguo and Prices.
LAIGHT AND CANAL STS.,
NEW YORK.
QAlso 51 NORTH 7th ST., II        PHILADELPHIA, PA
UPRIGHT DRILLS,
CUTTING-OFF MACHINES,
KEY-SEATING MACHINES
AND
SPECIAL MACHINERY.
Write for Catalogue and Prices.
THE W.P. DAVIS MACHINE CO.,
IZ()CT1I STTi1 , N. Y.


WARNER & SWASEY,
CLEVELAND, OHIO.
MANUFACTURERS Or
UNIVERSAL MONITORS.
-°-
IRON AND BRASS WORKING MACHINERY.
SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.
FORCE LATHE.
00L WORKS co
Correspondence Solicited.J =:

UPRIGHT DRILLS,
CUTTING—OFF MACHINES,
KEY—SEATING MACHINES
AND
SPECIAL MACHINERY.
Write for Catalogue and Prices.

THE WP. DAVIS MACHINE CO,
ROCI S'T t, N. Y.
The Ashcroft Manufacturing Co.,
SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF
The Tabor Steam Engine Indicator,
Fitted with HO lTACING REDUCING MOTION.
The most Corn- j
plete,, Compact. and Reliable In dicator Outfit, for
indicating high or
II        slowspeedengh es non• made, This
~~~jjj        instrument re-
ceired at        The
f        (I -        World's Colum-
(1'i        _        been Exposition "
~~        1 II        Highest Award
for Excellence of Design, Superior
Grade of Work-
manship and Fin-
ish,Reltability and
-_->        Efficiency. Send :or
Special Pam.Llet, omu, and sdlesroof 111 Liberty Stll New York,

J. M. ALLEN, PRESIDENT.
WM. B. FRANKLIN, VICE-PRESIDENT. F. B. ALLEN, SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT. T. B. PIERCE,
SECRETARY & TREASURER.

- THE ACME MACHINERY CO.
CLEVELAND, OHIO.
Manufacturers of

ACME BOLT & RIVET HEADERS,        {
'$11.lane Single and Double Automatic        +T• DFt'• s, l~~
DEC. 4, 188&
ROLT CUTTERS.R9.        1'T. -cf,. 24,1886.
Cuttin_ from 1-8 in. to 6 in. diameter.        _-
Also SEPARATE HEADS and DIES.        _== J
MACHINE TOOLS AT REDUCED PRICES..
In order to reduce our stock, we offer 16", 18", 21" and 24 ' engine lathes, 16", 22, 24" and 27"
planers, 10", 12" and 15" speed lathes, 15" and 20" turret lathes, at a good discount from
former prices.
We also have a few 16" and 18" second-hand engine lathes, in good order, and of our own
make.

THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., Torrington, Conn.

ENKINS' PACKING
right, so say thousands of Engineers. We have positively d m,lny times to cheapen the quality
to compete with makers. It is better to day than w..-n Er..t ;.:t on t !t 20 years ago. It is cheaper
than many other kinds be-it does not weigh as much per yard. It is honestly made, and has
advantages that no other has.

KINgS BROS.        PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON.
i & CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
FACTURERS OF
NG MACHINE TOOLS
~DEES, MA:EISE SECS, BOLLINS MILLS, STEA:d FCBOES. SBIP OPS, SEILLE WCTES, ETC.,
ETC.
HAMMERS,
ulic Riveting Machines.
9 Cortlandt St.        E. H. MUMFORD. Representative.
A:Y co.
4S AN EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY
!k~~ I S.
)0 SIZES and lengths, with ittust rations. 121 LIBERTY ST.. NEW YORK.
TURRET LATHES
In 4 Sizes and 60 Varieties,
SCREW- WHINIS
In 5 Sizes and 68 Varieties,
Of our own Manufacture.
The LARGEST STOCK of
Metal-Working Machinery
IN NEW YORK,
t7ritt f:r Conrleta List, Catakgne ane Price:.
LAIGHT AND CANAL STS.,
NEW YORK.
Also 51 NORTH 7th ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
INE COO

IVIHVnII .        ~I %of LM Q III
63-INCH FORCE LATHE.

THE NILES TOOL WORKS co.,
HAMILTON, OHIO.        Correspondence Solicited.
JENKINS' PACKING
I  • (,        Is all right, so say thousands of Engineers. We have positively
1.~        refused many times to cheapen the quality to compete with
4        other makers. It is better to day than vv.. n Oz :t I.:t on t' market d0 years ago. It is cheaper
than many other kinds be- cause it does not weigh as much
g        per yard. It is honestly made. and will do all that any other Packing will do and has
advantages that no other has.
NEW YORK.        CHICAGO.        `JENKINS BROS.        PHILADELPHIA. BOSTON.

BEMYIENT, MILES & CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
MANUFACTURERS OF
METAL WORKING MACHINE TOOLS
for 3AIL30AD SBCPS, LOCOMCTI7E AND CAB B7>ILDE3S, MACHINE BEC?S, BOLLI173
SILLS, I EAn FCSJES, S3IP
T03DS, BOILE3 SBOPS, B3IDJE TOTES, ETC., ETC.
STEAM HAMMERS,
Steam and Hydraulic Riveting Machines.
New York Office. Taylor Building, 39 Cortlandt St.        E. H. MUMFORD. Representative.

• A. GRAY CO.
MANUFACTURE AS AN EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY
P L
Send for list containing over 100 SIZES and length.s, with illustrations.
CINCINNATI, 0., and 121 LIBERTY ST.. NEW YORK.
--r-r~ ki r \        TURRET LATHES
No. 2 TURRET LATHE..

THE GARVIN MACHINE
In 4 Sizes and 60 Varieties,
SCREW- MACHINES
In 5 Sizes and 68 Varieties,
Of our own Manufacture.
The LARGEST STOCK of
Metal-Working Machinery
IN NEW YORK.
Wti::.....--'_.: Li... Ca:al:, a ac9 Pr:.:..
LAIGHT AND CANAL STS.,
NEW YORK.
OAlso 51 NORTH 7th ST., il        PHILADELPHIA, PA.
~,:;:.:ra=C:!.-i        ZS Cff -n Ci.%        -= Co.._3 Cr--;:.
Frar.;r—L. ROF,O, gS B'uie. arde RzJ,xrd Lenoir, Para..
£iI
WARNER
CLEV_-
UNIVERSAL
IRON AND BRASS

.j
UPRIGHT DRILLS,
CUTTING—OFF MACHINES,
KEY—SEATING MACHINES
AND
SPECIAL MACHINERY.
Write for Catalogue and Prices.
THE W.P. DAVIS MACHINE CO.,
ROCHESTER, N. Y.

THE ACME MACHINERY
d LEVEL:IND, OHIO.
Manufacturers of
ACME BOLT & RIVET HEAD
Acme Single and Double Auto
BOLT CUTTERS.
Cutting from 1-8 in. to Sin. diame
Also SEPARATE HEADS and DIE
MACHINE TOOLS AT RE
In order to reduce our stock, we offer 16", 18", 21' 24" and 27" planers, 10", 12" and 15" speed
lathes, 15' discount from former prices.
We also have a few 16" and 18" second-hand eng our own make.
THE HENDEY MACHINE CO.,
entex ertl