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A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS, BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN
MAKERS AND BLACKSMITHS.
VOL. 6, No. 29.1        NEW YORK, JULY 21, 1883.        4 $3.00 per Annum.
WEEKLY.        j        SINGLE COPIES, 6 CENTS.
(~OPYu10NT, 1883, BL AMERICAN MACHINIST  PU13I.IHI11NG COMPANY.        For Sale
Everywhere by Newsdealere.        ENTKItED AT POST OFFICE, NEW Voiuc, AN SECOND
CLASS MATTER
The Emery Testing Machine at the ~ pression up to a breaking strain of 800,000 United States
Arsenal, Watertown, lbs., while at the same time the machine should Mass,        be of such
delicacy as to accurately show the
strain required to break specimens no We present in this issue ;w engraving stronger than a
single horse-hair.
showing it perspective view of this famous I 2r1.--That the machine should have the
machine, together] with five
other engravings showing a
plan, rear and front views, with some details. Further details will appear in these columns
hereafter, which will aid1n giving an exact understanding of its construction and the manner of
operation.
This machine, the like of
which for capacity, accuracy, durability and general perfection of details probably does not
exist, is in possession of the United States Government, and its use is open to all citizens,
subject, of course, to prescribed regulations.
It reflects the highest credit upon the Immense labor, perseverance and courage of its inventor,
Albert H. Emery, and above all to his engineering skill.
The machine at Watertown was constructed by Mr. Emery under contract with the United
States Test Board of Iron and
ala,.1 ...A ....... ....:.. .. ~        . .
capacity of seizing and giving the neeessary strains to the specimens, from the minutest to the
greatest, without the construction of a multitude of special appliances to suit the numerous
changes of form and size in which materials to be tested are presented.
3d.—That the machine should be able to
give these strains and receive the shocks of
recoil produced by the rupture of the specimen, without injury. The difficulty of this
requirement may be appreciated by consider. in,- that when a test to the full capacity of

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'THE     TESTING NIACHINE AT THE UNITED STATES ARSENAL.—GENERAL VIEW.
It reflects the highest credit upon the iiumense labor, perseverance and courage of its inventnr,
Albert, II. Emery, and nluwo,ill to hisvngineerin, skill.
Iu, nutchiue at Watertown was constructed by Mr. Emery wider contract with the United Stat
(5'I'cst hoard ut' Iron and Steel, and wits guilt cmdor his dirrrliou at various shops and
foundries.
The description we are able to present this week was prepared for its by Mr. Emery himself and
is worthy of careful study. The problem before the contractor and inventor was one of no small
difficulty. Briefly stated, it was:
1st.—To construct a machine with the capacity of testing specimens for tension or corn-
the machine is made, the scale, upon the breaking of the specimen, receives by recoil an
tinstantaneaua load of 800,000 pouAds. The machine and scale must be so constructed as to
bear this Load•placed upon it instantaneously, and bear it so perfectly that the next moment it
will correctly show a load of it pound without any adjustment whatever.
4th.—That the machine should be so constructed that the specimen, while undergoing strain,
may be readily accessible for the purpose of observing minutely the changes taking place with
the changes of the strains or loads applied to the specimen.
5th.—That the machine should be so constructed as to be readily operated without excessive
cost.
The machine, after being erected, had applied to it a test load of one million pounds, which it
seemed to bear with the utmost ease. Before describing the machine, it is well to remark that all
the working parts in general were at their working bearings, fitted to gauges to within less than
one thousandth of an inch. For instance, the main screws which are 48 feet long were dressed
to gauges throughout their whole length, and then the threads on them cut to gauges, the
threads in the nuts being carefully gauged to
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AMERICAN MACHINIST JULY 21, 1883

match them, the same care be in used in general throughout the whole machine.
We now proceed to the description of the Government machine by reference to the figures and
parts which are numbered.
Fig. 243 shows a plan of the machine,with a plan of the scale case and one of the gauge cases.
Fig. 244 shows a side elevation of the same, with a section of the masonry bed on which it
stands.
Fig. 245 shows a rear view of the machine only.
Fig. 246 shows a front view of one end of the machine, with a front view of the scale case open
showing the scale.
Fig. 219 shows a side elevation of the scale end of the machine. Fig. 220 shows a plan of the
same.
Fig. 221 shows a longitudinal section of this end of the machine, with the scale-holder, that is
the holder which seizes the specimen and secures it to the scale, and shows in elevation the
straining holder, that is, the holder which seizes the specimen and which is drawn backwards
or pushed forwards by the straining press.
Figs 222 to 226 inclusive, illustrate details. of this part of the machine.
Figs. 189 to 197 inclusive, illustrate the construction of the accumulator and the jointed pipes
which connect it to the machine which it drives.
The bed of this machine consists of a long track built in sections, set on the masonry, to which
it is bolted firmly and secured in a strictly level position on sulphur bear-ins.
At the scale end of the machine (left-hand end in the drawing) there is a large bed, also •
secured to the masonry and set in sulphur, on which rests a bed, 1434, which has freedom of
motion longitudinally, but in no other direction.
This bed has cast at its front end large pillow blocks, and bolted at its rear end also pillow
blocks, through each of which pass the screws 1450. These screws are 84 in diameter, 48 feet
long, fitted as before mentioned, and rigidly screwed to bed 1434 by the caps of the pillow
blocks mentioned.
Towards right-hand end of the machine is shown the straining press 1569, standing on a 4-
wheel truck which carries it along on the track:
It is fixed to the screws 1450 at any desired position by means of the four geared nuts, which
are shown, two on either screw,which are driven in unison by means of the live-head 1599,
shown at the extreme right-hand end of the machine in Figs. 243, 244 and 245, which drives
the long shaft 1590, seen in Figs. 243, 214 and 221, which in turn operates through gears and
idlers the geared nuts on the screws. These nuts serve to set the press prior to the beginning
of any test at such position as is required by the length of the specimen.
The scale holder and straining holder are shown in Figs. 243 and 244 by the numbers 1475.
and may by operating the live-head be

At the scale end of the machine (left-hand end in the drawing) there is a large bed, also
secured to the masonry and set in sulphur, on which rests a bed, 1434, which has freedom of
motion longitudinally, but in no other direction.
This bed has cast at its front end large pillow blocks, and bolted at its rear end also pillow
blocks, through each of which pass the screws 1450. These screws are 84" in diameter, 48 feet
long, fitted as before mentioned, and rigidly screwed to bed 1434 by the caps of the pillow
blocks mentioned.
Towards right-hand end of the machine is shown the straining press 1569, standing on a 4-
wheel truck which carries it along on the track.
It is fixed to the screws 1450 at any desired position by means of the four geared nuts, which
are shown, two on either screw,which are driven in unison by means of the live-head 1599,
shown at the extreme right-hand end of the machine in Figs. 243, 244 and 245, which drives
the long shaft 1590, seen in Figs. 243, 244 and 221. which in tarn operates through gears and
idlers the geared nuts on
' the screws. These nuts serve to set the press
' prior to the beginning of any test at such I
position as is required by the length of the
specimen.
The scale holder and straining holder are shown in Figs. 243 and 244 by the numbers
Y1475, and may by operating the live-head be brought close together or carried 30 feet apart.
Wherever the press is stopped by the geared nuts it is locked to the screws ready for testing.
The strains on the specimen are seldom or never given by operating these nuts, they merely
fixing the press ready for strains to be given by the hydraulic pressure operating a 20-inch
steel piston contained therein, which is connected to the press holder 1475, by its steel piston-
rod 1563, the latter
1 being forged solid with the head, and 10 inches in diameter. The holders which seize the
specimens are best shown in Figs. 221 and 223, the latter showing an elevation of one of these
holders, one-half of which is in section. The middle beam, 1477, rests on two 14" rams, 1480,
which set on the beam 1476, which is screwed to the upper beam, 1475, by four steel tie-rods,
1478. These beams are of gun-iron, and are closely fitted. The opening between 1477 and 1475
is for the central portion which seizes the dies for round specimens 10 inches deep, the side
portions being 6 inches deep. - The width of the opening is 30 inches, thus allowing plates of
that width to be tested. The operation of
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the holder will be seen by
studying Figs. 221 and 223, the former showing the holder empty in front elevation and section,
the latter showing one of the holders in elevation and the other in section longitudinally where is
shown also a specimen, 1495, seized by the dies 1484a. The middle beam,. 1477, is forced by the
rams, 1480, to
give the necessary pressure
on the specimen to hold it purely by friction. The pressure carried by these holders is any load
desired, from one pound to one million, and is known by means of the gauges shown in their case,
1708, in front elevation, in Fig. 244. It will be seen that in applying the load of one million pounds to
the specimen, by the holder, the friction which holds the piece is that due to it million pounds on
each side, or the slipping of the load of two millions of pounds on one u rltee.
seen nor felt, but set gauges applied at each end showed the amount of these movements. They
are not only unseen and unfelt but they are also unheard, the noise of the breaking specimen
completely hiding any little noise the machine may make, no jar or rattling whatever being detected
in any part of the machine.
A description of the hydraulic supports which rest between the platform and bed of the scale
beams 1455 and 1456 will be given here-
after with the description of
the scale itself. When spe• cimens are tested for compression the clamp-plates, (Fig. 221), 1485 are
removed and placed at 1484, thus 8xing the scale holder directly to the beam 1458, which now
becomes the platform of the scale, 1455 becoming the bed thereof. The holder will seize the
specimen for testing at the fixed ends, or It may seize a platform against

Fig.192
The straining holder is secured to the piston, 1563, of the straining press by three chrome-steel
pins, 1488, 1489. The scale holder is secured to the scale by three chrome-steel pins, 1491 and
1492, which secure it to the steel link 1490. Pin 1493 secures this link to the beam lock, 1486, the
latter transmitting the load of tension to the beam or platform of the scale, 1455, through which the
pressure is transmitted to four hyIlraulic supports placed between this plat-
foriu 1455 and the bed of the scale 1456. When'strains of tension are thus given the strain passes
through the specimen 1494 to the holder, through it to the link 1490, pin 1493, beam lock 1486,
beam 1455, to the supports resting on 1456. That these parts may move against the supports
without friction they are supported on vertical steel plates IU1 and rods 1495, shown in Figs. 221,
223, n d 324. It will be seen by the drawings
that the load after being transmitted through the supports to the beam 1456 is carried directly
against the projections on the screws 1450, so that the load which is put upon the screws by the
straining press at one end of the specimen is exactly balanced by the load put upon the screws by
the scale at the other end, this load being transmitted through the pg3 bott
specimen, no part of the strain being carried through the foundations. If now the specimen breaks,
the screws being under a load of compression immediately free themselves of this load, putting
the entire scale end of the machine in motion longitudinally in one direction and the 'press end in
the opposite direction, these parts moving from each other until the screws are free from their load
of compression, when the inertia of these parts under motion will continue their movement until
the screws have received a load of tension nearly equal to the load of compression
which was upon them, the difference of loading being that due to the loss of friction by sliding the
scale end of the machine on its ways and moving the press on its track. The extension of the
screws will now cause the ends of the machine to move together until the screws are free from
tension when inertia of the moving parts will expend itself in compressing the screws and in
overcoming the friction mentioned. .In order that movable bed 1434 may always come to rest in its
proper position, buffer springs 1442 contained in boxes 1438 secured to fixed bed, alre provided.
See Figs. 221, 225 and 226. These motions of extension and compression continue until the work
of recoil is used up in the friction of moving the ends as mentioned. These vibrations are so rapid
that when the machine was originally tested in breakinga bar of wrought iron of 2() inches section
they could be neither
which they rest. If we test with flat or free ends, the beam block 1486 is sometimes put in place of
this holder when testing columns for compression, and a platform secured to it by the pin 1493. It
will be seen now that the foundations of the scale are the two coupled beams 1455 and 1456
between which are the hydraulic supports, these beams acting alternately as either platforms or
beds, depending on whether the load is tension or compression, the action being precisely the
same on the scale whether it is loaded from one face or the other. The beams 1455 and 1456 are
fixed against relative lateral motion by steel springs on plates 1471, Fig. 220, which also give an
initial load upon the supports to prevent any back-lash, this load being balanced on the scale
independently of the weighings of the strains put upon the specimen.
The beams are fixed against lateral motion
Fig.189
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relative to the bed 1434 by means of the supporting columns or plates 1461, Fig. 219, which fix and
support them vertically, and the two plates 1468, seen in Figs. 221 and 224, which fix them against
horizontal motion laterally. The pressure produced by straining the specimen which is transmitted
through the scale beams 1455 and 1456 to the supports between them is communicated through
small, seamless copper pipes, shown at 1704 in Fig. 243, passing under the floor to the scale case
1705, where the pressure within these pipes is measured. This measuring of this pressure is the
weighing of the strain upon the specimen. The press of the holders, as well as the double acting
straining press which strains the specimen, are operated by the accumulator which is shown in
plan and elevations in Figs. 189 to 192, Figs. 189 and 190 being side elevations, Fig. 191 a sectional
elevation, and Fig. 192 a plan of the same.
The accumulator here shown has four weights, 1302, 1803, 1804, 1305, while the one which
operates the machine has but three, but the action is precisely the same. 'These weights, which are
of masonry, are each and all operated by the central wooden column 1308, the latter being raised
by a 10-inch-ram, 1310, placed in the cylinder 1311, or by the 5 Inch rain 130), placed in the cylinder
1310, the pressure being about three times as much per square inch when the small ram is used as
when the large one is. One or more weights are raised as the case may require, depending on how
much pressure per square inch is desired on the liquid. They are carried by the column in its
upward movement or not, depending on whether the keys 1314 and 1315
are in the column or out. The liquid is conveyed to the cylinder 1311 from the steam hydraulic pump
by the fixed pipe 1313, or is conveyed to the cylinder 1810 through the movable pipe 1312, the latter
having a flexible joint, shown in Figs. 193 to 197 inclusive. In 193 it is shown without packing, the
joint being sufficiently well made to prevent leak. In 194 the joint is shown with a leather packing
1321 to prevent leakage of the rotating parts. This same flexible pipe joint is used to convey the
pressure from the
annmm~ ahnr to thn innvinn. Gtrninino nreuV

The Electric Railway at the Chicago
Exposition.
By ANGUS SINCLAIR.
The rapid development and improvement in electrical appliances during the last twenty years, has
excited wild expectations of what that method of transmitting power is going to do in the near
future. Friends or advocates of electricity have not hesitated to assert that, after uniting the farthest
nations into hourly intercourse, after lighting our halls and streets with a brilliancy that rivals the
sun's rays, the electric current is going directly to drive the machinery of our factories and run our
railroad trains. This
prediction has been widely heralded, and
few railroad men have failed to hear something about the motive power which is soon to abolish
the steaming locomotive. While decidedly skeptical about the coming power, nearly all railroad men
who visited the Chicago Exposition wanted to ride on the electric railroad motor and see.how the
thing worked.
Much disappointment was caused by the fact that, for two weeks, every attempt of the electric
motor to start on its journey re-stilted in failure, and the too hasty verdict generally was that the
motor was of the Keely stripe—an advertising fraud. The machine was hastily got together for the
Exposition, from material at hand, which was not well adapted for the construction of an electric
motor, and to this fact is attributed many of the defects which prevented it from working properly at
first. The track was also very crudely put together. The parties who performed this piece of track
laying, seemed to think that an electric motor could turn a corner at right angles, and their mistake
was responsible for much of the delay in getting the electric railway in running order.
After the motor got to making its rounds regularly, most of the visitors made it trip on the car. Many
went for mere curiosity, and to enjoy the novelty of traveling by electricity, but the thoughtful class
went there anxious to learn something about the principles of the motor's action.
The motor is a small flat car, about twelveitself by reversal of the electric current, but this is not the
case.
All the engineer can do toward stopping is to disconnect the machine from the conducting rail,
when the brakeman on the seated
car behind applies a handbrake.
The friends and advocates of electric railroads advance the theory, that owing to the extravagant
waste of heat in steam locomotives, power can be generated more cheaply at fixed points by
engines of the most economical design and transmitted by electric currents all over the lines of
road. They propose to obtain power at comparatively trifling cost by utilizing the energy of
waterfalls and rivers, and where steam must be resorted to they would erect their generating plant ;
iround coal mines or at the bottom of coal mines where waste products could be used up.
By these means they expect in the course of time to revolutionize the existing railroad system and
banish the steam locomotive, with all its smoke, and sparks, and puffing, and general tumult.
Many eminent electricians appear to be very sanguine, that their methods of applying power will
triumph within a few years. As economy is the test which must ultimately decide every question of
this nature the competition is a fair one, and may be said to have begun in earnest. Should electric
railroad men succeed in demonstrating clearly, that
they can carry wheat from Chicago to the
seaboard cheaper than it can be done by steam the victory is theirs.
Considerable progress has been made quite recently in electric railroad engineering, but
the business can scarcely be regarded as
beyond the experimental stage. Germany seems to have taken the lead in electric railroad
investigation and experiment. The fir'l electric railway that operated successfully was constructed
at the Berlin Exhibition in 1879. This was followed up shortly afterwards, by the opening of an
electric tramway two miles long in the suburbs of Berlin which was it commercial success.
France and England followed with various small roads, while our own Edison got one going at
Menlo Park. But the most important enterprise of this description was at Pont-rush in Ireland, where
it railroad was lately opened seven miles long which is worked

Drop forging
Cast Steel—Making Gun
Springs—Forging Swords. ( during the Civil War 1861-1865)
By B. F. SPALDING.
The idea that cast steel can be worked under the drop with facility, and without in jury to its nature,
seems to be one which, when it is novel, strikes the mind with sonic surprise, but to those who
have been pray tically acquainted with the business of drop forging ever since it began to largely
develop itself, say since 1850, this idea lost the cbario of novelty long ago. Men are now working
drops, who at the time these ideas were being materialized and successfully executed, were not yet
born. Gun springs of nearly for same pattern as those used in the Springfield rifle of 1863 were
forged under the drop, in that year, at two blows—one to edge their up from stock wide enough to
form the stem, and one to drive the stock in to till the die which gave them shape. After this they
were annealed and went through the operations of finishing, receiving during the processes a light
heat for bending, and another for "setting" the sides into the right shape, before they received the
final heat for hardening. They were hardened by an experience l man, who lost only twenty in a
thouwunl, and as they had to pass United States (b v ernment inspection, which at that place was
very rigid, this was a very small percentage of loss. Out of another lot of five hundred, of the same
shape, the same man lost three hundred, but these were made by hand in the good-old way. If it
had happened tle~l. they had been a first and experimental lot made under the drop, it is quite likely
that the process would have been condemned in that shop and under that management.
There was one thing about the two lots of springs which have been instanced, which is worthy of
notice for the practical lesson II teaches. This thing was, the difference In the physical structure of
the steel, as shown by breaking the bars before they weE" worked. In the one case the grain was
exlrn ordinarily close, and the fractures were soul' what like that of old dry cheese, seeming as
though the particles a(him ered togetJii'r In little chunks, and that there was less co Imesiveness
between the chunks than bet,wcru


pg-4-1882-bottom
is conveyed to the cylinder 1810 through the movable pipe 1312, the latter having a flexible joint,
shown in Figs. 193 to 197 inclusive. In 193 it is shown without packing, the joint being sufficiently
well made to prevent leak. In 194 the joint is shown with it leather packing 1321 to prevent leakage
of the rotating parts. This same flexible pipe joint is used to, convey the pre,sure from the
accumulator to the moving straining press or the moving holder, so that the pipes are always
connected ready for action without reference to the position of the presses, they being moving or
stationary as the case may require. Pipes also connect with each side of the piston of the straining
press and convey liquid to a pair of gauges in another case not here shown, one of which shows
the load on the compression side and the other that on the tension side of the piston, the difference
of their readings being the unbalanced load which is working to move the piston out or in, and
which differs from the strain upon the specimen by the frictions of the packings, which is often as
high as 30,000 or 40,000 pounds, as shown by the scale where the true load by the strain on the
specimen is weighed.
The friction can be almost entirely obviated by rotating the ram, apparatus for doing which was
provided, to be used in case the scale failed to work properly, a contingency which has never
happened.
The long screws 1450 are provided with three supports intermediate to the scale and straining
press of the machine. These serve to support and fix the screws at these points, and at the same
time they will when required tip down out of the way to allow the passage of the press, one pair of
these supports being shown as tipped down in Figs. 248 and 244.

A strike of about 200 machinists employed on shipbuilding work on the Clyde took place recently,
owing to the refusal of employers to advance wages half a cent an hour.
The faculty of King's College, London, England, has lately made many important additions to the
machines and tools needed for engineering and metallurgical studies. Among the new tools is an
elaborate testing machine, which is equipped with a Thurston automatic recording machine.in
getting the electric railway in running order.
After the motor got to making its rounds regularly, most of the visitors made a trip on the car. Many
went for mere curiosity, and to enjoy the novelty of traveling by electricit.y, but the thoughtful class
went there anxious to learn something about the principles of the motor's action.
The motor is a small flat car, about twelve feet long, carried by two pairs of wheels 26" diameter.
Ambition to make it look something like a locomotive has equipped the car with a pilot, a headlight
and a cab. This cab covers the back part of the motor, and here the apparatus for reconverting the
electric current into power is located. It consists of a Weston dynamo-electric machine, similar to
that which is illustrated and described on the first page of the AMERICAN MACuiNISP of June 16,
1883. The armature shaft is elongated and extends to the front of the car, and on its end is a pinion,
which engages bevel gearing and transmits the motion to a driving shaft. This driving shaft is not
connected with the wheels, but is supplementary, just like the cog axle used in the grasshopper
and other early types of locomotives that were driven on the second power. On this shaft are two
pulleys, which are connected with the driving axle by means of belts.
The current of electricity used in running the motor was generated down-stairs by a primary
dynamo, and was conducted to the secondary dynamo on the car by means of an insulated rail,
which is laid in the middle of the track. An adjustable metallic brush makes the connection between
the conducting rail and the dynamo. A lever, which works not unlike a locomotive throttle, regulates
the connection between the motor and the rail. When the engineer wishes to start, he pulls this
lever, which puts the brush on theside of the rail, when the armature immediately begins to revolve.
Another lever, which plays the part of the reverse -lever, is pushed aside and that operates it
friction clutch which puts the driving wheels into gear, and the train moves off, gradually at first, but
it reaches a speed of about ten miles an hour before it becomes necessary to slow up for the sharp
curves at the end of the building.
An impression exists that the motor stops1879. This was followed up shortly afterwards, by the
opening of an electric tramway two miles long in the suburbs of Berlin which was a commercial
success.
France and England followed with various small roads, while our own Edison got one going at
Menlo Park. But the most import ant enterprise of this description was at Pont-rush in Ireland,
where a railroad was lately opened seven miles long which is worked entirely by electricity.
The electric motor exhibited at Chicago was a poor representative of what can be done by
electricity as a motive power. Where the machines used are of the best designs, the belts and
pulleys are dispensed with, and the power is applied to the wheels in it more direct way. Efforts are
being made to get along without a separate motor, by applying the power directly to each car. One
of the great items of expense in ordinary railroad operating is the power absorbed in moving the
heavy locomotive, if the railroad electricians can dispense with the representative of this source of
loss, they will have made an important step on the way to success.
The City Council of Paris has appropriated 20,000 francs to send a delegation of workmen to
Boston to attend the Foreign Exhihition to be held this fall.
Commendable Liberality.

The Passaic Rolling Mill Company, Paterson, N. J., have erected a building, in which is established
a free reading-room, a music-room, and other conveniences for the amusement and instruction of
their employes. It is also proposed to establish, in connection with this, a school for technical
instruction, all the expenses being paid by the company. This should be set down to the generosity
of the company, but it is more than this. It is forethought, not alone in the interests of the workmen,
but in the interests of the company as well. It is one thing more in common between employers and
employes, and those who have a good deal in common are seldom brought to seriously disagree.
No one is inclined to accept favors without return, when the opportunity comes. Such acts as this
smooth away a good many rough spots.worthy of notice for the practical lesson it teaches. This
thing was, the difference in the physical structure of the steel, as shown by breaking the bars
before they were worked. In the one case the grain was extraordinarily close, and the fractures
were somewhat like that of old dry cheese, seeming as though the particles adhered together In
little chunks, and that there was less cohesiveness between the chunks than between the particles
composing them. In the other case the steel was not particularly fine, was rather brighter looking,
and broke without any tendency to chunkiness, or that appearance of skeleton leaves which some
think indicates peculiar toughness. When the first was worked, it still showed its fine grain, lost its
chunkiness, and looked like such steel as one would naturally pick out for a tool requiring a tine
edge. If the spring which was ' ` dropped " out of the other steel was taken immediately from the
drop and quenched in water, the appearance of the fan-lure, at it mere glance, would send a cold
chill through the frame of a conscientious tool dresser, but a closer inspection would show him an
open, very coarse, dark, scaly-looking grain, something as though it was full of minute blow-holes.
The first steel retained its peculiarities through all the processes of its manufacture to the last, and
was, as before stated, a complete failure for making gun springs. The other steel changed its
appearance for the better with each heat that it received, and made exceptionally good springs.
It might be said that the Difference was owing to the manner of forging, but there is no claim that
the process of dropping is any better for the steel than hand-forging, and that the principal
difference was in the quality of the steel, was shown at the time by replacing the broken hand-
forged springs by others, which were hand-forged, from another lot of steel, of which but a small
percentage were lost. This might tend to prove the truth of the assertion, that special steel is
required for specific purposes, if it were not the case that all the steel in the three lots was of
English manufacture, brought to this country to be used for general tools. The lesson to be learned
is, that the finest steel is not the best for all purposes, and that good cast steel will make good
springs, whether forged by one blow or by a hundred.
1883.  AMERICAN MACHINiST        5 top
In tin case of those which were dropped, it would naturally be thought that, as they were forced
with a very powerful blow into a close die, the steel in them would be very much compressed, and
consequently very line. There can be no question but what the steel was very much compressed
at the instant of the impact, for it was hot and in a soft and yielding condition ; yet, as soft as it
was, it had about it, in the nature of the steel itself, and in the rarefied gases which permeated its
particles, the quality of elasticity, which, when it was suddenly compressed by the blow and that
compression wits as suddenly removed, sprung the grain
open, so as to produce the appearance of
being full of minute blow-holes.
Iron rails shrink 5" in 28 feet, that is, the saws which cut off rails which when cold are to be 28 feet
long, are set 28 feet 5" apart, the rails being hot when they are cut. This is a shrinkage of .17857 of
an inch to the foot or about .003 less than three-sixteenths. It was necessary to make these dies
for springs to it shrinkage scale of one-fourth of an inch to the foot
This was m,uty years ago, and no documents are at hand  to show whether any experiments were
tried to ascertain whether the extra allowance was all taken up by shrinkage or whether a
springing back from the extension caused by the blow
took up a part of the allowance. If the natural shrinkage was all that had to be allowed for in drop
dies it would be an easy matter to measure the model-forging when it. was hot and make
templates by these measures to cut the dies to.
It has not always been found that this mode of proceeding gave satisfactory results, 'as when forg
ings were token from such dies they would not correspond with t he model. The remedy was
simple, being only to cut out what more was needed, and when the die had been so altered that it
produced a proper forging the templates were made over to 8t the (lit an l were then right for any
number of dies that might afterw;u•ml.s be required.

I i m ill like to hear from someor shorter, the ancients' swords were similar to the moderns, and
could our New York fencing master, Col. Monslery, cross swords with Caius Cassius—" an older
soldier "—it would be hard to tell which had the vantage of weapon.

The sword is it fixture, it has come to stay, and to stay very much as it is, although, as far as
leaving its marks on modern battlefields is concerned, perhaps it might as well have gone " under
in the mere" with good King Arthur's famous brand "Excalibur." As swords are essentially the
same now as they have been for ages, the forging of them is the test of the skill of the progressing
generations of blacksmiths.
The making of good swords is not one of the lost arts. They were formerly forged out by hand, but
at the works which Ames founded they have been drawn under the trip-hammer for many years.
The steel after being cut off to the proper length had a short piece of one end drawn out under tlie
trip. hammer to weld a shank upon, and then went to a hand-fire where the shoulders of the blade
which rest on the guard were squared up. The shank was not welded on until the blade was
nearly finished, as it would not have been convenient to grasp by the tongs while the subsequent
operations were being performed blade it begins to take an oval form, which continues to the
point. This part was drawn with the trip-hammer in the same manner that the other part had been,
only that other
dies fashioned to suit the work they had
to perform were used.

From the trip-hammer the blades were taken to it man who drew the points with a hand-hammer,
and on a form suitable to the purpose he bent the blades to the required shape, after which he
welded a bit of iron to the stub-sh,ink to make it long enough to extend through the hilt.
Iron was welded in in the old days instead of drawing down steel enough to make the entire shank
for the same reason that cutlers used to put iron shanks on case-knives. There was in those days
enough difference in the price of the two metals to pay the cost of making the weld, and it was
thought that iron was the better metal to use for the purpose of holding on the hilt, the trouble of
cutting it thread for a nut on it being less, and it was less liable to break and crumble in riveting. As
far as the forging was concerned the swords were now done.
The Van Dyke Water Tube Boiler.
The engraving presented with this represents a new water tube boiler now beingat the other end
of the boiler the top header is flanged to the drum. The feed water is pumped into the standards at
the top, and by its superior gravity finds its way to the bottom, where it enters the lower header
and the lower section of tubes, receives heat and rises by passing in turn through each section of
tubes and enters the dome, in which the water is usually carried to about the center. Here the
steam is separated, the water continuing in circulation through the dome, columns and pipes.
Below the lower headers, the columns not being exposed to beat, the water in them is still,
permitting the sediment to settle, when it is blown out by a blow-off located in the bottom of each,
or removed in cleaning.
This would seem to provide for it rapid circulation of water through the tubes, which should
prevent the deposition of sediment in them, and at the same time present a constantly changing
volume of water to the action of the hot products of combustion.
The boiler is, as will be seen, simple in construction, is accessible in all its parts, and requires but
little skill to erect. We are informed that by actual test one of these boilers has evaporated 12.44 of
water per pound of combustible, the steam showing superheat of from 10 to 16 degrees.
There are no joints exposed to the action of the fire, nor large surfaces exposed to bursting
pressure. The location of The beating surface is such that it should be effective, and the
construction and setting such that the cost per horsepower should be moderate.

LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL MEN.
Itinglesm Tool Boxeh - Flue and (oars,' Fced—A Yankee
Silop—Foruts of Tools.
Editor- Americo, Machinist:
In a recent issue, Chordal calls in question the utility of the no-ring tool box for lathes. I was
brought upon "Yankee" lathes,
and this tool box is one of the
few things on those lathes for
which

pg 5 bottom  building swords during the  civel war 1861-1865i
pie, being only to cut out what more was needed, and when the die had been so altered that it
produced it proper forging the tern 11111es were made over to fit the li  lull were then riglit for any
number of dies that might afterwards be required.
I would like to hear from some of your readers who have had experienc a in snaking (lies for close
drop forgings as to what allowance they have found it best to make for shrinkage.
Swords are subjected to a very
severe testing, as also are bayonets,
and it is found that a fine grained
steel is not the best for either.
Very curious stories are related of the Damascus blades, of the way in which they were made, the
process of tempering them, and of their superior qualities; but it is an old story now, belonging to
the early history of sword-making in this country, that N. P. Ames, of Cabotville, Mass , visited
Spain with specimens of his handiwork, and when the authorities there produced from among the
rarest treasures of their armories it sword that was particularly famous and tested it in his
presence he successfully submitted his samples to tests which were much more severe.
Of course, no one would wish to see the I',uuons old blade broken, however much he might wish
to know which was the most trusty weapon.
It may not be generally known, but it is nevertheless the fact, that in no country are better swords
made than for nearly half a century b;wc been manufactured in our own land.
Although I114 National Government has been largely and wisely interested in the manufacture of
muskets, ri Iles and cannon, it has left the making of swords and pistols n ,linly to private
enterprise.
Indeed, when Allen and Thurber and Colt held the patents on revolvers the clumsy old-fashioned
horse and navy pistols became things of the past. But no patent hair-trigger, self-cocking,
revolving sword has yet been generally introduced; the Sword of Bunker 11111 i, t he sword of
Appomatox, and longer
The steel was next heated, and being held by the stub-shank, the blade was blocked out into the
shape which experiment had proved to be the best adapted to finish. This blocking was done with
flat, smooth dies in the trip-hammer, and began by drawing the steel nearly down to its size
crosswise of the dies and finished by smoothing it up length ways of the dies.
The grooving which is seen in a sword-blade for some more than half its length was done with a
narrow pair of dies in a trip hammer, the head of which weighed about 90 pounds, and struck from
300 to 400 strokes a minute. These dies were made of such shape as to fit the sword when it was
put between them, and were much rounded off on the front and back sides so that the stock
would draw ahead rather than spread out sideways. Much of the facility with which they could be
grooved depended upon the manner in which they had been blocked out. When the blank was of
proper shape it was a comparatively easy matter to feed it slowly along between the dies, making
it to increase rapidly in length while it widened but very little. When it was a little narrow the
hammers-man took on more at each stroke, this having the effect to spread it in width, while if it
was spreading too wide he advanced by shorter steps which sent the stock more endwise. Thus,
by proper watchfulness and ready skill, he had the means at his command to correct any
imperfections in the blocking out. Where the groove ceases in the sword-

Editor American Machinist:
In a recent issue, Chordal calls
in question the utility of the no-
ring tool box for lathes. I was
brought up on "Yankee" lathes,
and this tool box is one of the
few things on those lathes for
which I have much reverence left.
Its purpose is to allow the turn-
ing tool to be put quite to the side
of the carriage, and no bent tools
are required. You have to block
up for boring, though some make
a transverse box for the tender
footed. I have always felt a ring
to be a nuisance, though a ring
and a slot are better than a
manufactured by Broad & Ewer at the Progressive Iron Works, Greenpoint, L. I, which has some
features worthy the con- sideration of those interested in such mat- ters. The water tubes are in
rows trans- versely and vertically extending over the furnace at the front end and In number cor-
responding to the, amount of heating surface required. They are plain tubes set in the ordinary
manner, in headers at the front and rear, the headers being provided with re- movable bolted
plates so that the tubes can at any time be readily come at for inspec- tion or for cleaning, or if
necessary at any time a tube can be removed and another sub- stituted with even greater ease
than in the instance of an ordinary tubular boiler.
The heat from the furnace is prevented from passing directly up and to the flue by means of fire
plates, which are so located as to compel the gases to traverse the length of each section of tubes
in alternate directions until they reach the top, where they pass over the dome, thus superheating
the steam in some degree. This provides a long run in a boiler of only moderate length, the hot
gases being at all times in intimate contact with excellent heating surface.
Two hollow standards or columns extend from the ground to the shell or steam drum, the interior
of these columns being con- nected with this drum by means of a cross pipe which is flanged and
riveted to it. These standards connect with the lower headers, but with none of the others, and

THE VAN DYKE WATER TUBE BOILER.
ring and the tool-post stuck in a hole. Perhaps some of our ingenious designers will cudgel out a
compound rest with a slot and no ring. You could swivel that round for boring, but perhaps
they've tried and found it wrong.
As I mentioned Yankee lathes a little slightingly, it would be unjust to stop without saying a few
words about the lathe as a general tool, though the subject is too large for the occasion.
Speaking of small lathes, the weighted lathe is undoubtedly the Yankee lathe-maker's
masterpiece. Its principle is so eternally sound that a fair and long-lived lathe may be built on it
with bed mostly of wood. In its best form, as now made, it is sufficiently stiff up to it certain point,
and its high carriage allows work of a certain diameter to be turned over it. These limitations
preclude its being a general tool. It is a special tool for the fine-feed school of turning.
Not long ago I made an excursion among the Yankees. In a Connecticut village I found it factory
employing over a dozen toolmakers. These men seemed to have solved the problem of life, if not
all mechanical problems. Apparently, nine points of the law, with both foreman and men, was to
make life agreeable. They had put on traps to gear down the feed on lathes whose feed was
already imperceptible, and the belt was always on the finest feed. While she fed, their more
vigorous recreation was building
6         MACHINIST        JULY 21, 1883
micrometer calipers, etc., for themselves, and their lighter diversion pitching cents. Every man had
a stool—also a chair with a back—and they washed up before the whistle blew. They came in on
time or late, to suit the cook, and the time-keeper came round twice a week--sometimes oftener.
These men got first-class pay, and got it every week. They told me that in the hard times, from '73 to
'79, time was not shortened, pay cut down, nor men discharged. In a Providence shop I also saw
fine-feeding lathes :tltered to feed finer.
My opinion, after experience in both schools, is that lathes for general use should be heavy, stiff
and powerful, the light lathes far more powerful than most lathes are, and that there should be a
greater range of feed from coarse to fine, and the feed more powerful. From 100 per inch to 8 per
Inch would do for a 20" swing ; 200 to 12 for 16" swing, and 250 to 16 for 12"swing. Ittnust be
gibbed. The weighted lathe will do in its place, but should be left to the gold girders and lily
painters.
Since using flat shear lathes, I think V's on it lathe an abomination. I know of nothing in favor of V's,
and of nothing against the flat ways. The flat must be kept clean, but, bless you, it's easy. There is
nothing in the way to prevent wiping.
Fine and coarse fec~ing comprise two distinct schools of working,and with radically different
cutting tools. The professors of loth are mostly bigots, the latter caring for their pay as much as the
former, and for their mechanical reputation, that it shall be as good as the man's at the next
machine. The professor of one Is rather helpless in the shops of the other. Each views the other's
tools with contempt.
Does any boy in it coarse feeding shop wish to try the virtues of fine feed ? First he will have to
build his lathe over to feed fine, beet let hint saz'e the coarse gear. Then, when he hits it slender
little job, let him make it pointed thinnish tool ; the cutting edge straight, not rounded, the part
touching the finished work almost a point. He will find out the rest himself.
Does any line feeding boy wonder what use a feed of 16 per inch is on it 12 inch lathe? Proper
coarse feeding tools are madeinjector? That is,would the waste heat drive the pump or not?
It seems to me that " very insignificant" is very indefinite, and that air. Rice is asking us to believe
something seen in print whether proven or not.
I wish some one who is posted would say how the first cost of pumps, beaters, injectors, cost of
repairs, &c., should come into the calculation of economy.

GREASER.
Indicator for Lathe Use.
Editor American Machinist:
I have lately designed a little instrument, it sketch of which I send you, under the impression that it
will be found useful by shop-men, as helping to produce accurate work. By the use of this
instrument the amount a round piece on the centers is out of truth is quickly seen. Take, for
instance, it reamer, or similar piece that has been hardened. Such work has frequently to be
ground true its entire length, and is generally found to have been sprung in hardening, sometimes
to an extent that makes it doubtful if it will finish to size.
To use this instrument, place it in the tool post, and bring the point, which should be hardened, up
to the work, above or below the center, until the index pointer stands at zero; then revolve the
work, at the same time watching the index pointer. This will show the amount the work is out of
round, and enable the workman to see at it glance (he knowing, of course, how much the piece is
to be reduced) whether it is safe to proceed with the grinding.ticed that it had already been turned,
with a view to remedy this defect. 1 said to the operator, "Your belt will be ruined if you allow it to
run it in that way." " Yes," he said, "I know, but I don't know what to do with it. I had the other side
on the pulley, but it run the same way." . I said, "If you would cut it square and lace it properly, it
would run all right."        -
I am fully convinced that if every estab lishment had is man that understood properly and
practised, the keeping of belts in order, a great deal could be saved yearly.
A great many belts are ruined by shifters. Some people have an idea that the shifter, or the pins that
shift the belt, should be as close to the pulley as possible. To my mind, this is all wrong, and is very
ruinous to it belt. The shifter should be from 6" to 12" away from the pulley, so that when it comes
in contact with the belt the latter will yield and shift easily.
Again, I have noticed that many operators use resin to prevent the belt from slipping. This is a bad
practice, and should be avoided. If a belt slips when it is not overloaded, examine your pulley;
perhaps it has become foul or dirty. If so, the belt cannot properly adhere to it. A pulley should be
kept clean and bright, and the smoother both belt and pulley are the less air will pass between the
two. Air prevents the contact of belt and pulley.
Rubbing the pulley surface, after it is cleaned, with warm tallow, is a good thing; in fact, tallow will
soften and preserve a bell if not used too freely. All oil and belt grease are more or less injurious.
Master Mechanics' Convention Notes.

REPORT ON THE BEST POSITION FOR CHECK
VALVES.
Thomas B. Twombly, of the C. R. I. & P. Railroad, who was chairman of this committee, complained
about receiving so few answers to the circulars he sent out asking for information upon the
subject. Those who sent him their views about the best position for locating check valves, all
agreed that it was desirable to have them as far away from i Ise fire-box as possible.
'I`he only serious objection to this arrangement is the length of feed-pipe exposed to the cold air,
which must cause considerable loss of heat by radiation where an injectorI used.
Theory had pointed to the leg of the firebox as the proper point for locating the check, as that was
supposed to be it part deficient in water circulation, and consequently low in temperature. It has
been claimed that by introducing the water at this place it good circulation would be maintained all
over the boiler. Acting upon this theory, Mr. Twombly some years ago placed a check of an injector
on the front part of the firebox of one of his engines, and within a week all the stay-bolts within two
feet of that check were leaking a stream inside and outside. Had the water been delivered from it
pump without being heated, be expected the case would have been worse. As it was, be
moved the check to the front end of the
boiler, which he considered the best location. Nearly all locomotive builders agreed with him in a
general way, but as to the exact point for placing the check valve there is conspicuous lack of
uniformity. Some parties think the mud Ilium the proper place for the check; others think it should
be attached under the belly of the boiler, while numerous attempts have been made to introduce
water by a perforated pipe carried forward inside the boiler. To this last method there arose the
obstacle of the pipe filling with mud and scale. The advantage claimed for having the check in the
belly of the boiler was, that, in case of accident it was not liable to get knocked off to scald people.
This consideration deserved attention.

INDICATOR FOR LATHE USE.—HALF SCALE.


when nhe hasit slender little job, let him make it pointed thinnish tool ; the cutting edge straight, not
rounded, the part touching the finished work almost a point. He will find out the rest himself.
Does any fine feeding boy wonder what use a feed of 16 per inch is on a 12 inch Lathe? Proper
coarse feeding tools are made thin and sharp, far thinner than Yankee diamond points, and very
thin for wrought iron. Thus they cut without loss of power. It is not pointed but rounded, the whole
cutting edge being circular, or rather curved, with less radius on the end. It is forged something like
a side tool, only very short, stout and rounded.
These tools are used the reverse way from the smoothing tool. Usually if the right-hand tool is
used for roughing, the left is used for finishing, being set with its rigid keen edge, not the point,
against the work. In hand-feeding over a flat surface these tools are an immense relief.

JOHN IRONsIDE.
Economy In Boiler Feeding.
Editor American Machinist:
In your issue of July 7, F. B. Rice in his article, "Feed Pump vs. Injector," truthfully says that too
little attention has been given to economy in boiler feeding, and as a user of power I am anxious to
know which is really the best way, as it means dollars and cents to me.
We practical men must accept what is told us or what we see in print when it is proved, and the
proof must be by methods that are so simple and convincing that no doubt can possibly remain as
to their truth.
Mr. Rice gives figures to show that an injector would save only 500 of heat where 150° could be
saved with pump and heater, but there the figures stop; and he goes on to say that the amount of
power required to drive a pump is very insignficant.
Now, if Mr. Rice is satisfied that he is correct, he ought to be able to prove it. Can lie give figures, or
tell me just how to go to work to find out how much power it actually takes to rot my pump, and just
how much power could be furnished by the heat that his figures say would be wasted by au
The construction, as will he seen, is such that any error is magnified fifty times, an error of one-
thousandth of an inch showing as one-twentieth of an inch on the graduated arc. By graduating
the are to twentieths, a piece that is out one-thousandth of an inch will move the pointer over one
of these divisions, or, if out only one-half that, over one-half of one.
The dotted lines at A represent the frame of the instrument without the levers In place. It will be
seen that the lower bearing is somewhat longer than the upper one. This is because some tool-
posts have no collars, which would otherwise prevent its use in many instances.
The pieces of the instrument should be case-hardened, and a washer Ig' thick should be placed
between the lever and the frame, so the two surfaces shall not come together. Countersink head
screws should be used at these points to avoid lost motion. The joint where the levers connect one
with the other should be fitted closely. The point of the index lever should be bent to come close to
the graduations. Do not run the lathe backwards while the pointer is in contact with the work.
This little instrument will be found useful on a planer; also connected to a surface gauge for
leveling work, as when a number of holes are to be drilled accurately with relation to other
parts.        C. E. SIMONDS.
Notes on Melts–gilt Shifters–Steel
Bets.

Editor American Machinist :
Some time ago I had occasion to get a job done in a machine shop. While there I watched it large
lathe running, and I noticed that there was a new 3" belt on it. Every time that belt came around half
of it ran on the flange, doing it great injury. I also no-
Vertical and short belts never give satisfaction. Shafting and machinery she inhl be so located that
short or vertical belts will not be required. I[orizontal and inclined belts give good results. A belt,
say, at an angle of 45 degrees, with the direction of the belt motion from the top of the driving
pulley, will give the best of satisfaction.
I have noticed they are making steel belting in Germany. The belts are made exclusively of steel
wire, are so constructed that they are flexible, easily fastened, and they may be tightened at will.
The pulley upon which this belting runs must be covered with leather, or some material suitable for
securing the necessary amount of adhesion. It is claimed this belting is well adapted for heavy
work, and is not affected by dampness or a change of temperature as leather belting is.
D. E. SHItACII. Manayunk, Philadelphia.

Air-Pumps Groaning.
Editor Ames*an Machini,t :
In regard to the question raised by F. F., De Soto, about air-pumps groaning, I would say that
nothing within the main cylinder can groan except the main piston or some of the small piston-
shaped valves. My own experience has been that soft packing rings fitted tight will cause groaning,
or should any of the rods be bent or the piston not fitted true on the rod it will cause groaning
when the putpp is at work.
To get an air-pump to work true and smooth the working parts must be accurately fitted—neither
too tight nor loose enough to blow—and care must be taken to see that there are no sprung rods
or obliquely set piston heads, and the cylinder must get a regular supply of good clean oil.
A. McD.attempts hive eeth mauc To IlItIniltiec water by a perforated pipe carried forty  u-it inside the
boiler. To this list inelhotI there arose the obstacle of the pipe tilling with innd ;tntl scale. The
advantage claimed t„r having the check in the belly of the boiler was, that in case of accident it was
not liable to get knocked off to scald people. This consideration deserved attention.
Mr. Twombly had tried smoke-box heaters, but did not find them economical. After trying various
methods of attaching the check, the effect of each way being carefully noted, he had come to the
conclusion that the best plan was to place the check valve outside the smoke-box conveying the
water into the boiler through the forward flue sheet. This gave the entering water it motion parallel
to the flues, and it gave good practical results.
When the subject was called for discussion Mr. Carscadin related his experience of trouble with
leaky fire-box and flues where it check had been placed too near the fire-box. IIe changed the
check to the front end and there was no more trouble.

METALLIC PACKING.
Mr. R. H. Briggs, chairman of the committee appointed to investigate this subject, based his report
upon the replies given to his circulars of inquiry.
The inquiries were made with the view of deciding from the experience of members what kind of
metallic packing worked best and was cheapest, and how its action on piston rods and valve
stems compared with other kinds.
Quite a number of replies were received showing that the subject excited unusual interest. A large
percentage of the master mechanics declined to express themselves for or against the use of
metallic packing, but twelve spoke up decisively in favor of it, while three were opposed to its use.
The arguments in favor of metallic packing are well expressed in a few of the following replies. Mr.
Twombly says: " We have the Jerome metallic packing on sixty engines,. and are putting it on all
new engines built, and on all the old ones as fast as they come in for repairs. Its action out piston
and valve rods is much more satisfactory than any other packing I have used. Estimated cost
0
Cover Page-no.2  AMERICAN MACHINIST JULY 21, 1883
Cover Page-no.2  AMERICAN MACHINIST JULY 21, 1883
Cover Page-no.2  AMERICAN MACHINIST JULY 21, 1883
1883.  AMERICAN MACHINiST        5 top
AMERICAN MACHINIST        7
A Randy Chucking Rig
BY A. J. SHAW
Many shops which have no turret or revolving head chueking lathes often have jobs of such a
character that even a temporary rig for holding two or more tools would, if reasonably efficient,
result in a saving of time, and if not too expensive in construction, in ultimate economy.
Chuck drilling as performed by the ordinary methods and by the usual tools may be a satisfactory
process as far as accuracy is concerned, although the opposite is too often the case, but is a slow
operation if several tools have to be used.
To do good and rapid chuck drilling, like most other shop operations, requires a "knack" and
handiness, to be obtained only by experience and long practice. But every apprentice has to chuck
a piece for what is to him the first time, and in too many shops all the instruction he can get is what
he can pick up by keeping his eyes open.
I do not intend to write a treatise on chucking work in the lathe, but will give a few hints to the boy
who is on his first hole. The "old bands " know all about it, so they need not read them unless they
wish.
Be sure that your drill is ground true both as to the length and angle of the cutting edges.
If the drill be one-sided, or if one lip be longer than the other, the longer lip does all or nearly all the
cutting, the drill runs out of the center and an "over-size" hole is t1'e result. Sometimes the bole is
taper from the same cause, the larger end being at the front.
Don't grind the drill too pointed. The more wedge shaped the point of the drill the greater will be the
influence of any irregularity irk the work to throw the drill out of the center, as the proportion of side
to end pressure then becomes greater.
On the other hand, the drill should not be ground too blunt, as, taking an extreme case, if the drill
were ground square across it would be more difficult to start true, and would require a greater
pressure to force it up to the cut.
The best angle for chucking, as well as for other drills, has been settled by experience to be about
that of a twist drill as it comes from the maker.
Use a firm rest, not too large for the drill, and keep it as near the face of the work as possible.
To produce good work it is absolutely necessary to keep the drill steady in the axial line of the lathe-
spindle.
The tendency of unevenness in the density or hardness of the metal, or of irregularities in the cored
holes being drilled, is to throw the drill to one side, and until it is so far entered that it has a bearing
on the parallel sides, this tendency is resisted almost wholly by the drill rest.
In a vertical direction the rest takes the strain direct. Horizontally, the steadiness oftion of the cut
was exerting to throw the drill out sidewise.
For light work, with a twist drill, it is best to take the strain of the cut by holding the dog or other
clamping arrangement in the hand, as when one can feel just what a tool is doing there is less
danger of overcrowding it.
Usually cast irqn should be chucked dry, wrought iron with water and steel with oil or soap as a
lubricant.
For using one drill, or even two, if they be on opposite ends of the same bar, the ordinary way is
tolerably rapid, but if several cuts are to be taken with dissimilar tools, the time required for changing
from one tool to another becomes a serious item. It was to avoid this loss of time and at the same
time put an unskilled man on a certain job that the writer devised the " kink," shown in the
accompanying sketch.

HartDY Csucsrrta RIG.
Some time since some 300 or 400 gears were required to be chucked in a great hurry, and as
cheapness was a primary consideration, as well as good work, the ordinary methods were entirely
too slow.
The tool consists of a yoke A, forged from 14x4" bar iron with a tail welded on at one side, of such a
size as to enter the tool past B, at the lathe.
The yoke is filed flat at w, w, where it rests on the adjusting ring R, not only that it may have a fair
bearing, but that when taken out it may readily be replaced in its former position.
The yoke being fastened in the tool-post is drilled in place through both arms, the drill being held in
the chuck. All the holes are drilled without loosening the yoke, the spacing being accomplished by
moving the tool-block on the saddle.
At the same time care must be taken to have all the tools in the same horizontal line. For this reason
this rig is not well adapted for use with a weighted carriage lathe. When the tool is in use the dead
center serves as an index for setting each of the tools for work as well as for feeding.
It is understood that when drilling the yoke is stationary, while the drill' slides forward through it.
If but two tools be used the most convenient method of setting the tools is by means of the screw-
cutting gauge attached to the saddle, so adjusting it that it serves as a stop in both directions.
When the tool is in use the yoke should be as near the work as possible, and at the same time
provide a clearance between its face and the idle tools.
Taps or reamers of any special shape could, of course, be substituted for any or all the tools shown
in the sketch.
The cost of the rig Is so small that it can economically be gotten up for a special job and thrown
away on its completion without serious loss.
In the case above mentioned the cost did not exceed three hours' time all told. This did not include
the cost of the "tools," as they were required in whatever manner the work was done. With it an
apprentice with a half hour's instruction turned out four or five times as much work, of good quality,
as the best man could do in the usual way.
The drill, or tool having the heaviest and most irregular work, should be placed next to the tool-post,
on account of the firmer support it receives.
A word as to the shapes of the rose reamers and counterbore.
The writer has tried and used many kinds of rose bits and reamers, and for general use on all kinds
of work has not found anything which will cut as fast and as freely and at the same time turn out
excellent work as the form shown in this sketch with three or five flutes spaced unequally. For
general use, the sizing part is turned nearly parallel for a length of two or three diameters and the
shank reduced. The flutes, the ends of which form the cutting lips, are deep and carried well up to
afford free passage for the chips If well backed off and kept sharp it can be forced through the work
very rapidly, and never requires backing out to clear away the cuttings. Although this form has been
• known for a long time, it is seldom met with.
The only peculiarity about the counter-bore is in the position of the cutter, which passes through the
stock at one side, instead of directly through the center line as usual. The object of this peculiarity is
to avoid chattering, as the cutter marks made by either lip cross those made by the other at a slight
angle, and thus partially neutralize each other. This tool cuts much smoother than the ordinary form,
especially when the length of the cutters is great compared with diameter
of the shank.
1883.  AMERICAN MACHINiST        8 top

pg 8  AMERICAN- MACHINIST
 A Wonderful Machine.
{°l        
 Not only engineers, but every one interested
 e
 in mechanical matters, will be pleased to p-
PUBLISHED WEEKLY        ruse the description in our present issue of
BY        the most remarkable machine in this country,
American Machinist Publishing Co.        perhaps in the whole world.        American me-
 chanics are more or less acquainted with the
HonacE B. MILLER. :. Pres't.        incidents leading to the production of this
JACKsoN BAILEY, vice-Pres't.        wonderful testing machine, by Albert H.
LrcURG rs B. MOORE, Treas. and Seo'y.        Emery.        The facts are now historical, how
96 Fulton Street, New York.        the United States Government created, some
 years ago, a board of leading engineers to
Jecasox BAILEY,        HORACE B. MILLER,        test iron, steel, and other structural materials;
Editor.        Business Manager.        how that board after months of search, both
F. F. HEMENWAY,        Mechanical Engineers.        (here
 and in foreign countries, could find no
Axaos SuvcrerR,         reliable apparatus to test large specimens,
— —        how it was feared that the labors of that
The American News Company,        board would terminate without accomplish-
Publishers' Agents, New York.        ing anything beyond the testing of specimens
The International News Company,        of small area, such as had been done by for-
11 BovvER,E STREET. (Fleet Street), LONnos, Eva.,        eign test boards; how the board finally found
will receive subscriptions for the AMERICANMACBIN-        Mr. Emery willing to undertake the building
PT at 16/8 per annum, postage prepaid.        of an accurate. and durable machine to test
DEALERS S PPLIED BY        pieces of four hundred tons breaking strength
The American News Company, New York.        as well as those requiring but one pound
The American News Company, Denver, Col.        strain to break them, and finally how he suc-
The American News Company, Kansas City, Mo.        ceeded after triumphing over the many difl3-
• The American News Company, Omaha, Neb.        culties that surrounded him in producing a
the American News Company, st. Paul, Minn.        
The New York News Company, New York.        machine filling all the requirements and gain-
The National News Company, New York.        ing the admiration of the best engineers in
The New England News Company, Boston, Mass.        Europe and America.        A brief summary of
The Central News Company, Philadelphia, Pa.        the requirements is given elsewhere this week,
The Western News Company, Chicago, Ill.        
The St. Louis News Company. St. Louis, Mo.        -        with cuts and description of the machine, as
The Cincinnati News Company, Cincinnati, Ohio.        prepared from the material furnished us by
The Detroit News Company, Detroit, Mich.        }Ir. Emery himself, which (the proof having
The Pittsburgh News Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.        been revised by him) may therefore be ac-
The Baltimore News Company, Baltimor.;, did.        I cepted as entirely accurate.
The Rhode Island News Company, Providence, R. I.        
The San Francisco News Co., San Francisco, Cal.        It was necessary for the inventor not only
The Brooklyn News Company, Brooklyn, N.Y.        to construct the machine, but to invent ap-
The Williamsburgh News Co., Brooklyn, E. D., N.Y.        pliances for constructing the machine as the
The -Newark News Company, Newark, N. J.        work progressed, so that when the machine
The -Northern News Company, Troy, N. Y.        
The Albany News Company, Albany, N. Y.        was finally completed he had not only in-
The Washington News Company, Washington, D.C.        I vented a testing machine, but also a new
The New Orleans News Company, New Orleans, La.        pressure gauge and a new scale.        
Recently,
The Montreal Views Company, Montreal, Canada        Mr. Emery has made arrangement n ith the
The Toronto News Co., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.        
The Toronto News Co., Clifton Branch, Clifton,        Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, of
Ontario, Canada.        IStamford, Conn.. under which scales, gauges.
 and testing machines invented by him will be
SUBSCRIPTION,        built under his supervision and placed upon
$3.00 a year, in advance, postage prepaid in the        the market.        Already three fifty-ton testing
United States and Canada.        machines, embodying the same principles as
$4.00 to Foreign Countries, postage prepaid.        
 the machine at the Watertown Arsenal are
 Inearly completed.
ADVERTISING.        The Government machine, which we illus-
Transient. 35c. per line each insertion.        I trate this week, has already demonstrated,
"Business Specials," 50c. a line,        by tests made upon it, that many of the fac-
-        ' tors of safety heretofore relied upon by en-
EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENT.'.        gineers in erecting bridges and ether large
positively we will neither publish anything in        i structures are really factors of ignorance. The
our reading columns for pay or in consideration of ad-        ! stiength of many Structures is not as mat
M
zerliaing patronage.        Those who wish to recommend        has been supposed.        The strength of
a bar of
their wares to our readers can do so as fully as they        iron or steel, one, two, or three inches square,
choose in our advertising columns, but our editorial        
opinions are not for sale.        We give no premiums to se-        forms no reliable guide to determining
the
cure either subscribers or advertisers,        strength of a bar of like metal five, six, or
;Every correspondent, in order to insure alien-        eight inches square, although previous to the
tion, should give his full name and address, not for        completion of this machine a direct ratio of
publication, but as a guarantee of good faith,        strength to size was believed to exist.        Mr.
-v- We are not engaged in procuring patent rights,        Emery's inventions will in time cause specu-
or in selliag machinery; nor have we any pet scheme        lation, as to strength and, materials, to be
to advance, or hobby to ride,        superseded by actual knowledge.
and crude, Desides being scarce in centers of management where manufactures are being
developed. behind time, th There was quite an excitement raised a few pleted on the c years ago to
establish mills for the produc reigning disord, tion of cotton fabrics, and they have made The fact is,
the some headway, and the business is slowly in many instanc growing against a good many
obstacles. As distinguish trill. work of this kind develops, the machinery were important. used must
receive skillful care in the way of time and though attendance and repairs, and Southern youth own
personal in ought to receive the training which would wider interests enable them to perform such
work. Agri many cases neg cultural machinery has been, in too many
instances, thrown aside when it needed re-
pairs, owing to the lack of skill and means'        Hamperin€ to execute such repairs cheaply and of-'
ficiently. This heroic method of disposing of machines that get out of order will not do when the
article is of the costly kind so often used in producing textile fabrics. The people must cultivate their
repairing faculties, or back out of the field of manufacturing competition.
Attention has occasionally been drawn to the rich mineral resources of Tennessee. but the most
valuable accumulations of ores and
other mineralogical treasures have hardly
been touched. Our informant found a farm away in the mountains where there lay a great vein of
transparent muscovite mica. which laminated off in large sheets, clean and even as the rinest window
glass. The farm belonged to a widow lady. and he asked what she would sell the place for. She was
willing to take five thousand dollars, which he agreed to double, for he perceived that the place was a
bonanza. Next day the lady agreed to go to the nearest town and have the necessary deed executed,
and she went there; but after having an interview with a lawyer, who was to write out the papers, she
derided not to sell.
Failure to Make Tests at the Railway
Exposition,
 -Apart fr m :._ smaµm        features as a from which al
Treat show, and the extraordinary oppor- ceed.
tunity presented to manufacturers and in- The moveme, ventors to display their wares and devices
are so uncerta before an immense audience, the Chicago such a convet Railway Exposition proved a
valuable in- that we know r struction school in showing railroad men and our manufactu mechanics
specimens of the most approved the world's con tools and the best methods of doing work.
protection.
Its tendency was to break down the narrow- Mechanical minded conceit in one's own ways that
comes much better pe of doing work eontinoaldy in a particular way Ear- a -- r d 4 With         1N`. Thee
a        a ld O 1m . I
~EOd —15 -         ' y5        art. D=f- and
better means of scttinf throe? we         this means !e
which he considered himself perfect While :heir Foy.
the Exposition was valuable in these and        Under "b--s
other respects, it had many shortcomings s,a fhi'o- rec
which have been very tenderly handled.        =n_ted - 1:
A most important department in the prc'rn- wE
ised usefulness of the Exposition collapsed. Pence-Vl. when the tests of material and appliances
ence in the co were abandoned. For months before the or pig iron is opening day the managers kept
inviting rail ! production in i road companies and others to bring material higher cost on alone. and
have it tested under machines I it is well knot


pg8
copy3
work of this kind develops, the macbinery used must receive skillful care in the way of attendance
and repairs, and Southern youth ought to receive the training which would enable them to perform
such work. Agricultural machinery has been, in too many instances, thrown aside when it needed
repairs, owing to the lack of skill and means to execute such repairs cheaply and efficiently. This
heroic method of disposing of machines that get out of order will not do when the article is of the
costly kind so often used in producing textile fabrics. The people must cultivate their repairing
faculties, or back out of the field of manufacturing competition.
Attention has occasionally been drawn to the rich mineral resources of Tennessee, but the most
valuable accumulations of ores and other mineralogical treasures have hardly been touched. Our
informant found a farm away in the mountains where there lay a great vein of transparent muscovite
mica, which laminated off in large sheets, clean and even as the finest window glass. The farm
belonged to a widow lady, and he asked what she would sell the place for. She was willing to take
five thousand dollars, which he agreed to double, for he perceived that the place was a bonanza.
Next day the lady agreed to go to the nearest town and have the necessary deed executed, and she
went there; but after having an interview with a lawyer, who was to write out the papers, she derided
not to sell.
chanics are more or less acquainted with the incidents leading to the production of this wonderful
testing machine, by Albert H. Emery. The facts are now historical, how the United States Government
created, some years ago, a board of leading engineers to test iron, steel, and other structural
materials; how that board after months of search, both here and in foreign countries, could find no
reliable apparatus to test large specimens, how it was feared that the labors of that board would
terminate without accomplishing anything beyond the testing of specimens of small area, such as
had been done by foreign test boards; how the board finally found Mr. Emery willing to undertake the
building of an accurate and durable machine to test pieces of four hundred tons breaking strength as
well as those requiring but one pound strain to break them, and finally how he succeeded after
triumphing over the many dif iculties that surrounded him in producing a machine filling all the
requirements and gaining the admiration of the best engineers in Europe and America. A brief
summary of the requirements is given elsewhere this week, with cuts and description of the machine,
as prepared from the material furnished us by Mr. Emery himself, which (the proof having been
revised by him) may therefore be accepted as entirely accurate.
It was necessary for the inventor not only to construct the machine, but to invent appliances for
constructing the machine as the work progressed, so that when the machine was finally completed
he had not only invented a testing machine, but also a new pressure gauge and a new scale.
Recently, Mr. Emery has made arrangements with the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, of
Stamford, Conn., under which scales, gauges, and testing machines invented by him will be built
under his supervision and placed upon the market. Already three fifty-ton testing machines,
embodying the same principles as the machine at the Watertown Arsenal are nearly completed.
The Government machine, which we illustrate this week, has already demonstrated, by tests made
upon it, that many of the factors of safety heretofore relied upon by engineers in erecting bridges and
other large structures are really factors of ignorance. The strength of many structures is not as great
as has been supposed. The strength of a bar of iron or steel, one, two, or three inches square, forms
no reliable guide to determining the strength of a bar of like metal five, six, or eight inches square,
although previous to the completion of this machine a direct ratio of strength to size was believed to
exist. Mr. Emery's inventions will in time cause speculation, as to strength and„ materials, to be
superseded by actual knowledge.
Southern Industrial Requirements.
Manufacture of their ordinary metal products for every-day use is making slow but sure headway in
some portions of the Southern States, particularly in Georgia and Tennessee. Small country
foundries, with a crude repairing connection, are becoming more common than they were ten years
ago. The blacksmith shop is getting, in many instances, to possess a lathe and planer.
In the course of a conversation we had'ere important. And they devoted so much time and thought to
the furtherance of their own personal interests and projects that the wider interests of the Exposition
were in many cases neglected.
Hampering Our Iron Industries.
In his inaugural address at the Roanoke (Va.) meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engineers
President Robert W. Hunt made some seasonable remarks on the existing methods of manufacturing
fictitious values for mining property. His plea was for cheaper ores, so that our iron trades may be
able to compete with other countries on even terms. He did not wish to see a reduction in the cost of
ores produced by the impoverishment of labor, as he did not desire to lessen the price of steel by
pulling down the wages of our workmen to the level of foreign nations. Where he wanted the
cheapening process to come from was by stopping the practice of watering stock. To get cheap iron
parties must not buy mining property for $50,000 and then convert it into a stock company calling the
capital $1,000,000 and require interest on the fictitious investment.
This is a serious and far-reaching matter, a subject in which every one connected with metal work is
directly interested. The prosperity which our metal trades experience is directly due to the demands
of the home
 market which is preserved to them by judic-
Failure to Make Tests at the Railway        ious protection.
Exposition.        Iron manufacturers are ha>idicapped by
 being obliged to pay double price for the ore
Apart from its amusement features as a        from which all succeeding operations pro-
great show, and the extraordinary oppor-        ceed.
tunity presented to manufacturers and in-        The movements on our political chessboard
ventors to display their wares and devices        are so uncertain and tariff questions offer
before an immense audience, the Chicago        such a convenient theme for demagogues
Railway Exposition proved a valuable in-        that we know not the day nor the hour when
struction school in showing railroad men and        our manufacturers may be required to face
mechanics specimens of the most approved        the world's competition without the shield of
tools and the best methods of doing work.        protection.
Its tendency was to break down the narrow-        Mechanical        labor-saving        appliances        are
minded conceit in one's own ways that comes        much better perfected here than they are in
of doing work continually in a particular way        Europe, and our workmen, though better
with certain tools.        There a man's eyes often        paid thantheircompeers beyond the Atlantic,
forced him to the conclusion that others had        have more enterprising self-reliance, and by
better means of getting through work upon        this means get out work proportionate to
which he considered himself perfect.        While        their pay.
the Exposition was valuable in these and        Under        these        circumstances there is no
other respects, it had many shortcomings        satisfactory reason why steel rails should be
which have been very tenderly handled,        finished in Yorkshire at a cost of $1.5 a ton,
A most important department in the prom-        while similar steel cannot be produced in
ised usefulness of the Exposition collapsed        Pennsylvania under $.b a ton.        The differ-
when the tests of material and appliances        hence in the cost of transportation of the ores
were abandoned.        For months before the        or pig iron is trifling.        So the high cost of
opening day the managers kept inviting rail        production in this country must be due to the
road companies and others to bring material        higher cost on raw furnace material.        In fact
along, and have it tested under machines        it is well known that this is the case.        Raw
specially constructed for doing such work,        materials for iron        making (coal, ore and
and handled by experts whose skill would        limestone) not being bound up in inaccessible
insure accuracy.        Such tests were not only        fastnesses that inordinately enhance the cost
to be valuable to those who saw them carried        of bringing them to the fuaance, the only
out; they were going to be an important ser-        conclusion to be arrived at is, that the mines
vice to the whole country in demonstrating        are environed with fictitious values placed
beyond peradventure the kind of material        there by the process of stock watering.
the axles and rails and bridges are made of,        The evil effects of this are not confined to
that do so much to make travel safe or dan-        one branch of the iron trade.        Every manu-
gerous.        Since the return of prosperity to our        facturer from the nail maker to the locomotive
metal industries, charges        have        frequently        engine builder suffers from it in greater or
been made that steel producers are taking        less degree according to the maLnitnde of


-
I.
cb,tnics are more or less acquainted with the
incidents leading to the production of this wonderful testing machine, by Albert H. Emery. The facts
are now historical, how the United States Government created, some years ago, a board of leading
engineers to test iron, steel, and other structural materials; how that board after months of search,
both here and in foreign countries, could find no reliable apparatus to test large specimens, how it
was feared that the labors of that board would terminate without accomplishing anything beyond the
testing of specimens' of small area, such as had been done by foreign test boards; how the board
finally found Mr. Emery willing to undertake the building of an accurate and durable machine to test
pieces of four hundred tons breaking strength as well as those requiring but one pound strain to
break them, altd finally how he succeeded after triumphing over the many difficulties that surrounded
him in producing a machine filling all the requirements and gaining the admiration of the best
engineers in Europe and America. * A brief summary of the requirements is given elsewhere this
week, with cuts and description of the machine, as prepared from tht, material furnished us by Mr.
Emery himself, which (the proof having been revised by him) may therefore be accepted as entirely
accurate.
It was necessary for the inventor not only to construct the machine, but to invent appliances for
constructing the machine as the work progressed, so that when the machine was finally completed
he had not only invented a testing machine, but also a new pressure gauge and a new scale.
Recently, Mr. Emery has made arrangements with the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, of
Stamford, Conn., under which scales, gauges, and testing machines invented by him will be built
under his supervision and placed upon the market. Already three fifty-ton testing machines,
embodying the same principles as the machine at the Watertown Arsenal are nearly completed.
The Government machine, which we illustrate this week, has already demonstrated, by tests made
upon it, that many of the factors of safety heretofore relied upon by engineers in erecting bridges and
other large structures are really factors of ignorance. The strength of many Structures is not as great
as has been supposed. The strength of a bar of iron or steel, one, two, or three inches square, forms
no reliable guide to determining the strength of a bar of like metal five, six, or eight inches square,
although previous to the completion of this machine a direct ratio of strength to size was believed to
exist. Mr. Emery's inventions will in time cause speculation, as to strength and materials, to he
superseded by actual knowledge.work of this kind develops, the machinery used must receive
skillful care in the way of attendance and repairs, and Southern youth ought to receive the training
which would enable them to perform such work. Agricultural machinery has been, in too many
instances, thrown aside when it needed repairs, owing to the lack of skill and means to execute such
repairs cheaply and efficiently. This heroic method of disposing of machines that get out of order will
not do when the article is of the costly kind so often used in producing textile fabrics. The people
must cultivate their repairing faculties, or back out of the field of manufacturing competition.
Attention has occasionally been drawn to the rich mineral resources of Tennessee, but the most
valuable accumulations of ores and other mineralogical treasures have hardly been touched. Our
informant found a farm away in the mountains where there lay a great vein of transparent muscovite
mica, which laminated off in large sheets, clean and even as the finest window _lass. The farm
belonged to a widow lady, and he asked what she would sell the place for. She was willing to take
five thousand dollars, which he agreed to double, for he perceived that the place was a bonanza.
Next day the lady' agreed to go to the nearest town and have the necessary deed executed, and she
went there; but after having an interview with a lawyer, who was to write out the papers, she decided
not to sell.here important. And they devoted so much
time and thought to the furtherance of their own personal interests and projects that the wider
interests of the Exposition were in many cases neglected.

Hampering Our Iron Industries.
In his inaugural address at the Roanoke (Va.) meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engineers
President Robert W. Hunt made some seasonable remarks on the existing methods of manufacturing
fictitious values for mining property. His plea was for cheaper ores, so that our iron trades may be
able to compete with other countries on even terms. He did not wish to see a reduction in the cost of
ores produced by the impoverishment of labor, as he did not desire to lessen the price of steel by
pulling down the wages of our workmen to the level of foreign nations. Where he wanted the
cheapening process to come from was by stopping the practice of watering stock. To get cheap iron
parties must not buy mining property for $5O.0011 and then convert it into a -took company calling
the capital $1AN v o.~ M+:- and require interest on the fictitious investment.
This is a serious and far-reaching matter, a subject in which every one connected with metal work is
directly interested. The prospenty which our metal trades experience is direct Iv due to the demands
of the home
M        market which is preserved to them by judic-
Failure to Make Tests at the Railway        ious protection.
Exposition.        Iron manufacturers are handicapped by
 being obliged to pay double price for the ore
Apart from its amusement features as a        from which all succeeding operations pro-
great show, and the extraordinary oppor-        ceed.
tunity presented to manufacturers and in-        The movements on our political chessboard
ventors to display their wares and devices        are so uncertain and tariff questions offer
before an immense audience, the Chicago        such a convenient theme for demagogues
Railway Exposition proved a valuable in-        that we know not the day nor the hour when
struction school in showing railroad men and        our manufacturers may be required to face
mechanics specimens of the most approved        the world's competition without the shield of
tools and the best methods of doing work.        protection.
Its tendency was to break down the narrow-        Mechanical        labor-saving        appliances        are
minded conceit in one's own ways that comes        much better perfected here than they are in
of doing work continually in a particular way        Europe, and our workmen, though better
with certain tools.        There a man's eyes often        paid than their compeers beyond the Atlantic,
forced him to the conclusion that others had        have more enterprising self-reliance, and by
better means of getting through work upon        this means get out work proportionate to
which he considered himself perfect.        While        their pay.
the Exposition was valuable in these and        Under these        circum        nce- there is no
other respects, it had many shortcomings        satisfactory reason why steel rails should be
which have been very tenderly handled.        finished in Yorkshire at a cost of $15 a ton,
A most important department in the prom-        while similar steel cannot be produced in
ised usefulness of the Exposition collapsed        Ptnlsylania under p2.5 a ton.        The differ-
when the tests of material and apphaae        -encc in the cost of transportation of the ores
were abandoned.        For months before the        :r pig iron is trifling.        So the high cost of
opening day the managers kept inviting rail        production in thie- country must be due to the
road companies and others to bring material        higher cost on raw furnace material.        In fact
along, and have it tested under machines        it is well known that this is the case.        Raw
specially constructed for doing such work.        materi-"- for iron        making (coal, ore and
and handled by experts whose skill would        limestone • not being bound up in inaccessible
insure accuracy.        Such tests were not only        fastnesses that inordinately enhance the cost
to be valuable to those who saw them carried        of bringing them to the fur+ance, the only
out; they were going to be an important ser        conclusion to be arrived at is, that the mines
vice to the whole country in demonstrating        are environed with fictitious values placed
beyond peradventure the kind of material        there by the process of stock watering.
the axles and rails and bridges are made of,        The evil effects of this are not confined to
that do so much to make travel safe or dan-        one branch of the iron trade.        Every manu-
gerous.        Since the return of prosperity to our        facturer from the nail maker to the locomotive
metal industries, charges        have frequently        engine builder suffers from it in greater or
been made that steel producers are taking        less degree according to the magnitude of

Southern Industrial Requirements.
•ianufacture of their ordinary metal prod-v d _;ts for every-day use is making slow but 1— re headway
in some portions of the
-,thern States, particularly in Georgia and
-annessee. Small country foundries, with
rude repairing connection, are becoming
common than they were ten years ago. _,.eksmith shop is getting, in many in-
_ _ -        possess a lathe and planer.
course of a conversation we had


big the s mirstt•,n of the beeenzier        in .        whkh lsnti        zed of in larre sheet, clean ,        
cheapening pi
Europe and America        A brief summary of        and even as the finest window glass.        The        
stopping the p
the requirements is given elsewhere this week,        farm belonged to a widow lady, and he asked        
get cheap iron
with cuts and description of the machine, as        what she would sell the place for.        She was        
property for
prepared from the material furnished us by        willing to take five thousand dollars, which        into a
stock
Mr. Emery himself, which (the proof having        he agreed to double, for he perceived that        
$1,000,000 and
been revised by him) may therefore be ac-        the place was a bonanza. Next day the lady        
investment.
cepted as entirely accurate,        agreed to go to the nearest town and have        This is a se
It was necessary for the inventor not only        the necessary deed et        ited, and        . _        in wi
to construct the machine, but to invent ap-        there; butafterhavi:_ ._ `-?        -tew w!t_ _        - _        w.
rk        i
pliances for constructing the machine as the        lawl wbo wat to        - .tents whip
work progressed, so that when the mach;re        '_ems'.        -'_ -        ;. -'-         directly due
was finally completed he had not only iL        —        market which '.
vented a testing machine, but also a        Failure        to        Make Tests at the Railway        ions
protection
pressure gauge and a new scale.        Recently.        Exposition,        Iron manuft
Mr. Emery has made arrangements with the                being obliged t.
—s- New T•c.vk N w' C+ patsy. New T':e
The Nz-io_i News Coany. New Tcai.
The New Et=:aLd News C...;arc. R. zc•^. Maw. The Centra. News Company. Ph ade:phia. Pa. The
Western News Company. Chicago. Ili. The St. Louis News Company. St. Louis, Mo.

The Cincinnati News Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Detroit News Company, Detroit, Mich. The
Pittsburgh News Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. The Baltimore News Company, Baltimor,;, Xd. The Rhode
Island News Company, Providence, R. L The San Francisco News Co., San Francisco, Cal The
Brooklyn News Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. The Williamsburgh News Co., Brooklyn, E. D., N. Y. The
Newark News Company, Newark, N. J. The Northern News Company, Troy, N. Y.
The Albany News Company, Albany, N. Y.
The Washington News Company, Washington, D.C. The New Orleans News Company, New Orleans.
I. The Montreal News Company, Montreal. Canada. The Toronto News Co., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Toronto News Co., Clifton Branch, Clifton,
Ontario, Canada.
S L BSCRIPTIO V.
S3.in a year, in advance, postage prepaid in the
United States and Canada.
$4.()0 to Foreign Countries, postage prepaid.

ADVERTISING.
Transient, 35c. per line each Insertion. "Business Specials," 50c. a line.
EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEJfE'1 TS.
°Poeitirely we will neither publish anything in our reading columns for pay or in consideration of
advertising patronage. Those who wish to recommen,l their wares to our readers can do so as fully
as they choose in our advertising columns, but our editorial opinions are not for sale. We give no
premiums to 8e cur' either subscribers or advertisers.
'Every correspondent, in order to insure attention, should give his full name and address, not for
publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.
We are not engaged in procuring patent rights, or in selling machinery; nor have we any pet scheme
to advance, or hobby to ride.
' We invite correspondence from practical machinists, engineers, inventors, draughtsmen, and all
those especially interested in the occupations we represent, on subjects pertaining to machinery.
'Subscribers can have the mailing address of their paper changed as often as they desire. Send both
old and new addresses. Those who fail to receive their papers promptly will please notify us at once.

NEW YORK, JULY 21, 1853.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
The Emery Testing Machine at the United States Arsenal, Watertown, Mass...........1, 2, 3 The Electric
Railway at the Chicago Exposition.
ByAngus Sinclair ..............................        4
CommendableLiberality ............ ... ..... 4 Dropping Cast Steel; Making Gun Springs; Forging Swords.
By B F. Spalding......... 4 The Van Dyke Water Tube Boiler........... ..5 Letters From Practical Men. —
Ringless Tool Boxes; Fine and Coarse Feed; A Yankee Shot) : Form of Tools — Economy in Boiler
Feeding Indicator for Lathe Use—Notes on Belts; Belt Shifters; Steel Belts—Air-Pumps
Groaning.....................        .. ..........5, 6
Master Mechanics' Convention Notes............ 6 A Handy Chucking Rig. By A. J. Shaw......... 7 AM'
onderful Machine ................. .......... 8 Southern Industrial Requirements ............... 8 Hampering Our Iron
Industries .................. 8 Questionsand Answers ...........................g 9 Manufactures..................................... 9
Machinists' and Engineers' Supplies ............. 10

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, of Stamford. Cunn.. under which scales. gaulea, and testing
machines invented by him will be built under his supervision and placed upon the market. Already
three fifty-ton testing machines, embodying the same principles as the machine at the Watertown
Arsenal are nearly completed.
The Government machine, which we illustrate this week, has already demonstrated, by tests made
upon it, that many of the factors of safety heretofore relied upon by engineers in erecting bridges and
other large structures are really factors of ignorance. The strength of many structures is not as great
as has been supposed. The strength of a bar of iron or steel, one, two, or three inches square, forms
no reliable guide to determining the strength of a bar of like metal five, six, or eight inches square,
although previous to the completion of this machine a direct ratio of strength to size was believed to
exist. Mr. Emery's inventions will in time cause speculation, as to strength and, materials, to be
superseded by actual knowledge.

Southern Industrial Requirements.
Manufacture of their ordinary metal products for every-day use is making slow but sure headway in
some portions of the Southern States, particularly in Georgia and Tennessee. Small country
foundries, with a crude repairing connection, are becoming more common than they were ten years
ago. The blacksmith shop is getting, in many instances, to possess a lathe and planer.
In the course of a conversation we had lately with a gentleman who has recently returned from an
extended tour in the South, we learned many particulars of the pressing needs of that section. The
first requirement seemed to be skilled labor, for there is too much reluctance exhibited among
respectable boys to learn industrial business. The reform in this sentiment must come before the
South can expect to make a respectable showing in the production of work that requires special skill,
for a man must know ,how to do the work himself before be can intelligently direct others. Tools
adapted to ordinary repairing work are very defective.-'ment features as a
great sL _ w. n.i the extraordinary opportunity presented to manufacturers and inventors to display
their wares and devices before an immense audience. the Chicago Railway Exposition proved a
valuable instruction school in showing railroad men and mechanics specimens of the most approved
tools and the best methods of doing work. Its tendency was to break down the narrow-minded
conceit in one's own ways that comes of doing work continually in a particular way with c•ertyin
tools. There a man's eves often forced him to the conclusion that others had better means of getting
through work upon which he considered himself perfect. While the Exposition was valuable in these
and other respects, it had many shortcomings which have been very tenderly handled.

A most important department in the promised usefulness of the Exposition collapsed when the tests
of material and appliances were abandoned. For months before the opening day the managers kept
inviting rail road companies and others to bring material along, and have it tested under machines
specially constructed for doing such work, and handled by experts whose skill would insure
accuracy. Such tests were not only to be valuable to those who saw them carried out; they were
going to be an important service to the whole country in demonstrating beyond peradventure the
kind of material the axles and rails and bridges are made of, that do so much to make travel safe or
dangerous. Since the return of prosperity to our metal industries, charges have frequently been
made that steel producers are taking advantage of the timely demand for their material to use inferior
iron in steel making, and that, in consequence, boiler sheets and rail sections are far below their
supposed strength. The Chicago Exposition would haiye been an unparalleled opportunity for
proving the truth or falsehood of these allegations, had the promised tests been carried out, for iron
and steel from every section of the continent would have been subjected to public scrutiny, such as
it is not likely to receive now for some time. Lack of time was the reason given for not carrying out the
programme in regard to tests, but that merely means lack
9-AMERICAN-MACHINIST-JULY-21-1883

o.S . ~•
Under this head we propose to answer g1ueations sent us, pertaining to cur specialty, correctly,
and according to common Renee
7IL hods.
(242) H. L., Huntington, Pa.. asks: What is the difference between an inspirator and an injector? A.—
The principle upon which they operate is substantial'y the same.
( 43) T. J. H. Pittsburgh, Pa., asks : Why is it that a steam vessel that can attain a speed of only ten
mile_- an hour in still water will attain a speed of more than fifteen miles an hour in a current of five
miles an hour? 4. Any wellconsstructed and engined vessel that has a speed of ten miles an hour
in still water will have a speed of less than fifteen miles with a five-mile current.
(244) C. L.. Summitville, Iowa, asks : 1. What is the best material of which to make the boiler of a
traction engine, the steam pressure to be 130 lbs.? A.—Either iron or steel. 2. What should be the
tensile strength of the material? A.—That of good boiler plate, say from 50,000 to 65,000 lbs. 3.—Is
plowing by steam a success in this country, and what is the better way to propel the plow? A.—
Steam plowing can hardly be said to be an assured success, and the best way of application is not
settled.
(245) G. F. W , Philadelphia, Pa., asks:
Will you tell me of a paste for cementing seams of a light cloth fabric, the seams to be pliable and
waterproof? 4.—A cement recommended for such purpose is made as follows: Put 1 pint of ale and
2 ounces Russian isinglass in an ordinary glue
kettle and boil until the isinglass is dissolved, after which add 4 ounces of glue and dissolve; then
add, quite slowly, 1M ounces of boiled linseed oil, stirring until the whole is thoroughly mixed. To
use this, when cold, dissolve whatever is required for use in a sufficient quantity of ale to make it of
the consistency of ordinary glue prepared for use. Apply with a brush. The materials used for
making this cement should be of the best quality.
sketch of the valve and valve seat of a narrow gauge locomotive which be says does not do the
work it ought to. Will not start a moderate sized train without taking the slack, and is very liable to
stall on a hill if allowed to slow down below fen miles an hour. He would like us to suggest any
improvement which would make the engine stick to the train better on a grade, and start easier. A.—
There is nothing about the valve or the seat
shown in the sketch to indicate anything wrong
about the engine. They are well proportioned. Steam ports 15.16x15". Valve 5-8" outside and 1-16"
inside lap. With the other parts of the valve mo Lion as well proportioned and properly put together
this should give good distribution of steam.
R. Dudgeon, 24 Columbia st., New York, Improved Hydraulic Jacks and Roller Tube Expanders.
For sale, 25" lathes of best designs from new patterns. Gebrge A. Ohl & Co., E. Newark, N. J.
Lyman's Gear Chart. How to lay out gear teeth. Price 50 cents. E. Lyman, C. E., New Haven, Coun.
Latest and best books on Steam Engineering. Send stamp for Catalogue. F. Keppy, Bridgeport,Ct.
Universal grinders for lathe-centers, chucks, angles or cylinders. C.C.Hill, 144 La Salle st.,Chicago,
Ill.
Wood Engraving done in best manner. Designs furnished. Edward Sears,48 Beekman St. NewYork
Foot Power Machinery,for workshop use sent on trial if desired. W.F. & John Barnes, Rockford, HL
Pattern and Brand Letters. Vanderburgh, Wells & Co., corner Fulton and Dutch streets, New York.
Guild & Garrison's Steam Pump Works, Brook-
lyn,N.        Send
V. Steam Pumping catalogue.        of every de- Speed and drill lathes, 10"x4', new design. Self-
clamping rest, first-class material and work. Par-
ties about to buy will do well to inquire. C. Wing, Greenfield, Mass.

"Patent Binder" for the AMERICAN MACHINIST holds 52 weekly issues inood shape. Sent to any
address by mail for one dollar. American Machinist Publishing Co., 96 Fulton street, New York.
The Complete Practical Machinist, $2 50: the Pattern Maker's Assistant. $2.50; Mechanical Drawing
Self-taught, $4 00; books for practical machinists. Address, Joshua Rose, Box 3,306, New York City.
The National Feed-Water Heater—the best and cheapest in the market: warranted to heat water by
exhaust steam up to 206° to 212° Fahrenheit. This heater commends itself to every practical man.
For description and prices, apply to the National Pipe-Bending Company, New Haven, Ct.
We will pay 25 cents each for copies of the issue of January 21, 1882, that are in good condition.
Those kind enough to forward us copies of the above date will please write name and address on
the wrapper for identification. Ax. MACHINIST Publishing Company, 96 Fulton Street, N. Y. City.
The New Pulsometer, price, 600 gallons per hour,
$50:1200do..$75; 3,600 do., $100; 6,000 do., $150; 10.00) do., $175; 18,000 do.. $225: 25.000 do.,
$275; 45,000 do., $400; 60,000 do., $500: 120,000 do.. $1,000.
Write for descriptive book, mailed free. Pulsometer Steam Pump Company, 83 John street, New
York City.
Wanted—Correspondence with engine builders, boiler makers, and supply dealers in steam goods.
We manufacture the cheapest Injectors and best Steam Jet Pumps in this country, and offer to live
men the most liberal terms ever named. Drop postal for particulars to J. B. Sheriff, Son & Co., 68
Water St., Pittsburg, Pa.
"Useful Information for Steam Users"—a 100-page illustrated pamphlet, carefully compiled from the
best authorities, on the care and management of the steam engine and boiler, with hints for
engineers and firemen. Engineers everywhere should have this work. Send 25 cents in P. O.
stamps for a copy. The J. N. Mills Publishing Co., 145 Broadway, New York.
Chordal's Letters.—John Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place, New York, have now ready a new and
enlarged edition, with six additional plates, of Chord-al's Letters, comprising the choicest
selections from the series of articles entitled " Extracts from Chordal's Letters," which have
appeared in the
columns of the AMERICAN '.MACHINIST; with a steel
portrait of the author, and upwards of fifty original illustrations by Chas. J. Taylor. One volume 12
me. of nearly 400 pages, cloth, $2.00. Will be mailed and prepaid on the receipt of the price.
The following will be of interest to railroad companies and others using steam:
Chicago and Grand Trunk Railroad Company Locomotive Department.
FORT GRATIOT STATION, June 16, 1883.
Dear Sirs:—The Westinghouse air pump on engine 73 was packed with asbestos wick packing
Nov. 1I. 1882 Since that time I have run the engine 27,900 miles on passenger trains. The packing
was examined to-day and apparently will be good for a year longer. The stuffing-box nuts have
been screwed up 4 turn on the air cylinder and one turn on the steamside during that time, and I
have never noticed it leak any.
Yours truly, C. B CONo;ER, Engineer Engine 73. To H W. Johns Mfg. C,,.. New York.
A company with a capital of $200,000 is forming at Mobile, Ala., to put up a furnace with a capacity
of sixty tons of iron a day.
At Kankakee, Ill., a barb-wire manufacturing
The Laconia Car Company, Laconia, N. H., are about entering upon a contract for the manu-
facture of $200.000 worth of freight cars of a new pattern, designed for the safe transportation of
vegetables in winter.
The net profits of the cotton factory at Pied-
mont, S. C., during the pagtyear, are 211 3 per cent. on the capital stock of $500,000. Of the
earnings, 10 per cent, was paid out in dividends, the rest placed In the reserve fund.
A company of gentlemen have purchased the
patterns, gauges, tools, shop, etc., of George B.
Brettell, Rochester, N. Y., and will continue the building of iron planers and other machinery under
the firm name of the Rochester Machine Tool Works.
F. Howland, president; N. H. Wilbur, treasurer; S. Hawes and J. M. Allen, directors, have been in-
corporated as the Acushnet Paper Company of
New Bedford, Mass., capital, $12,600. The company proposes to make paper from the bark of the
cedar and other material.
Rifenburg & Co., have made a proposition to the people of San Diego, Cal., to commence the
erection of buildings suited for iron and steel works on certain conditions. Ground has been
selected between San Diego and National City. About 100 men will be employed, it is stated.
Lawrence & Herkner. 8 Ferry st.. New York. have just received from the Edison Electric Light-
ing Company the contract to furnish 600 feet 12"
wide, and 600 feet 11" wide of their special double electric light belting to drive the dynamo
machines at the Louisiana Exposition.
Athol, Mass., has voted that all taxes which may be assessed for the next ten years on mill sites,
mills, or water power on Miller's river, between the iron bridge in Royalston, just above Pequoig
Station and Kennebunk. are to be rebated, taxes on machinery to be rebated for five years.
Seymour & Whitlock, Newark, N. J., are supplying on orders quite a number of their new vertic.l
engines, and are more than ordinarily busy on their other lines of work. They build a press for
jewelers and other fine work, which by a peculiar device is almost instantly adjustable in its stroke
by thousandths of an inch.
Ira Parker & Company, of Littleton, N. H., man-
ufacturers of the celebrated Littleton Saranac
Buckskin Gloves and Mittens, have just put in a new line of shafting one hundred and twenty-four
feet long from their old mill to their new glove shop. It connects direct to their 120 horse-power
water-wheel which will give steady power for their works.
General Buel, chief of ordnance, awarded contracts to the South Boston Iron Works for four 12-
inch rifled cannon at $30,000 cash, and one large mortar, price not named ; also the converting of
fifty 10-inch smooth-bore cannon into 8-inch rifles. The contract for tubing these guns has been
given the West Point Foundry at $1,500 each, so that the total cost of changing these pieces will be
$2,100
each.
Walter Scott (whose address is box 1226, Plainfield, N. J.,) has designed a new web-perfecting
printing press, which he believes to be superior to the one designed by him, and now in use by
several leading daily newspapers. His press, as heretofore built, was illustrated and described In
the AMERICAN MACHINIST of March 25th. 1882. Mr. Scott is to build his new press in a factory
soon to be erected by himself.
The Helmbacher Forge and Rolling Mill Co. of St. Louis, are erecting a seventy-five ton testing
machine and a new hammer at their works. This new hammer will give them a total of six hammers.
They will shut down their entire establishment to-day with the exception of their blacksmith shop
and two hammers, which will be kept running. This is done for the purpose of taking stock, and
making necessary repairs.—Age of Steel.
(246) N. P., Brainerd, Minn., asks : 1.
What is the dividing line between a high and low pressure engine., A.—The dividing line is not
strictly defined. We should say that where the pressure of steam was more than two atmosphereli
(30 lbs. absolute) it might be called high pressure. 2. Have you published an article recently on
setting Corliss valves: A.—No. 3. In fitting locomotive axle boxes should the bearing extend from
the
~.crown to the limit of the half circle? A.—The box should not be a close scraped fit all over the half
circle, as such a fit will be almost certain to heat. If you were boring a solid box to fit a journal you
would bore it enough larger than the journal, to allow for a film of oil to keep the surfaces of the
metals apart. You should fit the half box in the same manner.
(247) Master Mechanic, Ark., sends the

9
plow A.—Steam plowing can hardly be said to be an assured success, and the best way of
application is not settled.
(245) G. F. W, Philadelphia, Pa., asks: Will you tell me of a paste for cementing seams of a light cloth
fabric, the seams to be pliable and waterproof? A.—A cement recommended for such purpose is
made as follows: Put 1 pint of ale and 2 ounces Russian Isinglass in an ordinary glue kettle and
boil until the isinglass is dissolved, after which add 4 ounces of glue and dissolve; then add, quite
slowly, 1% ounces of boiled linseed oil, stirring until the whole is thoroughly mixed. To use this,
when cold, dissolve whatever is required for use in a sufficient quantity of ale to make it of the
consistency of ordinary glue prepared for use. Apply with a brush. The materials used for: making
this cement should be of the best quality.
sketch of the valve and valve seat of a narrow
gauge locomotive which he says does not do the work it ought to. Will not start a moderate sized
train without taking the slack, and is very liable to stall on a hill if allowed to slow down below fen
miles an hour. He yould like us to suggest any improvement which would make the engine stick to
the train better on a grade, and start easier. A.—There is nothing about the valve or the seat
shown in the sketch to indicate anything wrong
about the engine. They are well proportioned. Steam ports 15-16xl5". Valve 5.8" outside and 1.16"
inside lap. With the other parts of the valve mo Lion as well proportioned and properly put together
this should give good distribution of steam. Without receiving more data than what you have sent,
it would be extremely difficult for us to venture an intelligent opinion of what trouble the engine may
be suffering from. A common mistake made on Western roads is that of giving the valves too much
lead. This would have a tendency to produce the weakness you complain of. If you will take motion
curves of the travel of your valve in full gear and at 9" cut and send them to us, we would be better
able to advise you. You will find an easy way of taking motion curves described in the AMERICAN
MACHINIST of July 1, 1l3 .
Transient Advertisements, 50 cts. a line for each insertion under this head. About seven words
make a line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later thatt Wednesday for the ensuing week's
issue.
Presses & Dies. Ferracute Mach. Co., Erldgeton,N.J. Steel Name Stamps, &c. J. B. Roney, Lynn,
Mass. James W. See, Consulting Engineer, Hamilton, 0.
Steam Economy-124 pp.. in boards. By mail, $1. A. Wilkinson, Manayunk, Pa.
Chas. T. Porter, Mechanical Engineer, Tribune Building, (Room 42,) New York City.
Patents.—Franck D. Johns, Att'y at Law & Solicitor of Patents, 617 Seventh St., Washington, 1). C.of
January 21, 1882, that are in good condition. Those kind enough to forward us copies of the above
date will please write name and address on the wrapper for identification. Au. MACHINIST
Publishing Company, 96 Fulton Street, N. Y. City.
The New Pulsometer, price, 600 gallons per hour, $50; 1200 do., $75; 3,600 do., $100; 6,000 do.,
$150 ; 10,000 do., $175; 18,000 do., $225; 25,000 do., $275; 45,000 do., $400; 60,000 do., $500:
120,000 do., $1,000. Write for descriptive book, mailed free.
Pulsometer Steam Pump Company, 83 John street, New York City.
Wanted—Correspondence with engine builders, boiler makers, and supply dealers in steam goods.
We manufacture the cheapest Injectors and best Steam Jet Pumps in this country, and offer to live
men the most liberal terms ever named. Drop postal for particulars to J. B. Sheriff, Son & Co., 68
Water St., Pittsburg, Pa.
"Useful Information for Steam Users"—a 100-page illustrated pamphlet, carefully compiled from the
best authorities, on the care and management of the steam engine and boiler, with hints for
engineers and firemen. Engineers everywhere should have this work. Send 25 cents in P. 0. stamps
for a copy The J. N. Mills Publishing Co., 145 Broadway, New York.
Chordal's Letters.—John Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place, New York, have now ready a new and
enlarged edition, with six additional plates, of Chord-al's Letters, comprising the choicest
selections from the series of articles entitled " Extracts from Chordal's Letters," which have
appeared in the columns of the AMERICAN MACHINIST; with a steel portrait of the author, and
upwards of fifty original illustrations by Chas. J. Taylor. One volume 12 mo. of nearly 400 pages,
cloth, $2.00. Will be mailed and prepaid on the receipt of the price.
The following will be of interest to railroad companies and others using steam:
Chicago and Grand Trunk Railroad Company Locomotive Department.
FORT GESTIOT STATION, June 16, 1883.
Dear Sirs:—The Westinghouse air pump on engine 73 was packed with asbestos wick packing
Nov. i1, 1882 Since that time I have run the engine 27,900 miles on passenger trains. The packing
was examined to-day and apparently will be good for a year longer. The stuffing-box nuts have
been screwed up yq turn on the air cylinder and one turn on the steamside during that time, and I
have never noticed it leak any.
Yours truly, C. B- CONGER, Engineer Engine 73. To H W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York.
1°Zc'
_        l        F        l
A company with a capital of $200,000 is forming at Mobile, Ala., to put up a furnace with a capacity
of sixty tons of iron a day.
At Kankakee, Ill., a barb-wire manufacturing company has been organized who propose to
manufacture the wire without a license.
The Pratt & Cady Company, Hartford, Conn., expect to have their new shop done in August. It will
be 140x40 feet, two stories high, with a brass foundry 60x30 feet.
The Nicholson File Company, Providence, R. I., are building an addition, 80x40 feet, two stories,
for the manufacture of the finest grades of files
for jewelers use.
Somers Bros., Brooklyn, N. Y., manufacturers of presses and dies, have purchased a site for the
erection of a new machine stfbp in which to carry on their business.
Johnson & Willson, 91 Liberty at., New York, agents for Saylor's Portland Cement, and "Styrian "
Tool Steel, have issued a pamphlet relating to these two articles.
The Pennsylvania & New York Railroad Company is building a new foundry at Syracuse, N. Y. The
main building is to be 124 by 63 feet, and over three hundred men will be employed.
The machine shop for the new watch factory to be erected at Aurora, Ill., will be built at once. The
plans for the new cotton mill have been made. The main building will be 100x26 feet.
The Haxtun Steam-Heater Company, of Kewanee, Ill., will build a shop 150x60 feet, two stories
brick, in which they will place $30,000 worth of machinery for the manufacture of steam brass
goods.electric light belting to drive the dynamo machines at the Louisiana Exposition.
Athol, Mass., has voted that all taxes which may be assessed for the next ten years on mill sites,
mills, or water power on Miller's river, between the iron bridge in Royalston, just above Pequoig
Station and Kennebunk, are to be rebated, taxes on machinery to be rebated for five years.
Seymour & Whitlock, Newark, N. J., are supplying on orders quite a number of their new vertical
engines, and are more than ordinarily busy on their other lines of work. They build a press for
jewelers and other fine work, which by a peculiar device is almost instantly adjustable in its stroke
by thousandths of an inch.
Ira Parker & Company, of Littleton, N. H., man-
ufacturers of the celebrated Littleton Saranac
Buckskin Gloves and Mittens, have just put in a new line of shafting one hundred and twenty-four
feet long from their old mill to their new glove shop. It connects direct to their 120 horse-power
water-wheel which will give steady power for their works.
General Buel, chief of ordnance, awarded contracts to the South Boston Iron Works for four 12-
inch rifled cannon at $30,000 cash, and one large mortar, price not named; also the converting of
fifty 10-inch smooth-bore cannon into 8-inch rifles. The contract for tubing these guns has been
given the West Point Foundry at $1,500 each, so that the total cost of changing these pieces will be
$2,100
each.
Walter Scott (whose address is box 1226, Plainfield, N. J.,) has designed a new web-perfecting
printing press, which he believes to be superior to the one designed by him, and now in use by
several leading daily newspapers. His press; as heretofore built, was illustrated and described in
the AMERICAN MACHINIST of March 25th, 1882. Mr. Scott is to build his new press in a factory
soon to be erected by himself.
The Helmbacher Forge and Roiling Mill Co. of St. Louis, are erecting a seventy-five ton testing
machine and a new hammer at their works. This new hammer will give them a total of six hammers.
They will shut down their entire establishment to-day with they exception of their blacksmith shop
and two hammers, which will be kept running. This is done for the purpose of taking stock, and
making necessary repairs.—Age of Steel.
The Wisconsin Malleable Iron Company, Milwaukee, contemplates enlarging its works by the
addition of 120 feet of foundry room, and an additional air furnace and two double annealing
ovens; when completed, employment will be given to 300 men, and an annual output of 3,000 tons
of malleable castings of the value In the aggregate of $400,000, will be maintained. Its orders this
season in amount have far surpassed any previous_ year up to this time.
Cooke & Co., 22 Cortlandt st., New York, have just published an illustrated catalogue of machinery
and supplies, containing 464 pages, bound in cloth. The volume, while not cumbersome,
represents a good assortment of shop-tool machines and supplies, including engines and boilers.
It is
indexed so as to be handy for reference. The
latest improved tools are shown by cuts. Accompanying the catalogue is a full price list (178 pages)
which is also suitably indexed. The Boston Commercial Bulletin says: "The Ed-
wards Manufacturing Campany, at Augusta, Me., have decided to close up all work of improvement
on the company property at once, and also abandon the project of a new factory. The reason
assigned is that the valuation placed upon the property by the assessors is excessive, imposing a
burden which similar property in the State does not bear, and placing the Edwards Company at a
disadvantage In a close and depressed market for cotton
goods.
(246) N. P., Brainerd, Minn., asks : 1.
What is the dividing line bet%Veen a high and low pressure engine? A.—The dividing line is not
strictly defined. We should say that where the pressure of steam was more than two atmospheres
(30 lbs. absolute) it might be called high pressure. 2. Have you published an article recently on
setting Corliss valves k A.—No. 3. In fitting locomotive axle boxes should the bearing extend from
the
'~— crown to the limit of the half circlet A.—The box should not be a close scraped fit all over the
half circle, as such a fit will be almost certain to heat. If you were boring a solid box to fit a journal
you would bore it enough larger than the journal, to allow for a film of oil to keep the surfaces of the
metals apart. You should fit the half box in the same manner.
(247) Master 'Mechanic, Ark., sends the


What is the dividing line between a high and low pressure engine? A.—The dividing line Is not
strictly defined. We should say that where the pressure of steam was more than two atmosphere9
(30 lbs. absolute) it might be called high pressure. 2. Have you published an article recently on
setting Corliss valves? A.—No. 8. In fitting locomotive axle boxes should the bearing extend from
the crown to the limit of the half circle? A.—The box: should not be a close scraped fit all over the
half Circle, as such a fit will be almost certain to heat. If you were boring a solid box to fit a journal
you would bore it enough larger than the journal, to allow for a film of oil to keep the surfaces of the
metals apart. You should fit the half box in the same manner.

(247) Master Mechanic, Ark., sends the sketch of the valve and valve seat of a narrow gauge
locomotive which he says does not do the work it ought to. Will not start a moderate sized train
without taking the slack, and is very liable to stall on a hill if allowed to slow down below fen miles
an hour. He yould like us to suggest any improvement which would make the engine stick to the
train better on a grade, and start easier. A.—There is nothing about the valve or the seat shown in
the sketch to indicate anything wrong about the engine. They are well proportioned. Steam ports
15-16x15". Valve 5-8" outside and 1-16" inside lap. With the other parts of the valve No Lion as well
proportioned and properly put together this should give good distribution of steam. Without
receiving more data than what you have sent, it would be extremely difficult for us to venture an
intelligent opinion of what trouble the engine may be suffering from. A common mistake made on
Western roads is that of giving the valves too much lead. This Evould have a tendency to produce
the weakness you complain of. if you will take motion curves of the travel of your valve in full gear
and at 9" out and send them to us, we would be better able to advise you. You will find all easy way
of taking motion curves described

In the, AMERICAN MACHINIST of July 1, 1882.
Transient Advertisements 50 cts. a line for each insertion under this head. Afiout seven words
make a line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than Wednesday for the ensuing week's
issue.
Presses & Dies. Ferracute Mach. Co., Brldgeton,N.J. Steel Name Stamps, &c. J. B. Roney, Lynn,
Mass. James W. See, Consulting Engineer, Hamilton, O.
Steam Economy-124 pp., in boards. Ity mail, $1. A. Wilkinson, Manayunk, Pa.
Chas. T. Porter Mechanical Engineer, Tribune Building, (Room 4i,) New York City.
Patents.—Franck D. Johns, Att'y at Law & Solicitor of Patents, 617 Seventh St., Washington, 1). C.
way, New York.
Chordal's Letters.—Jphn Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place New York, have now ready a new and
enlargecI edition, with six additional plates, of Chord-al's Letters, comprising the choicest
selections from the series of articles entitled " Extracts from Chordal's Letters," which have
appeared in the columns of the AMERICAN MACHINIST; with a steel portrait of the author, and
upwards of fifty original illustrations by Chas. J. Taylor. One volume 12 me. of nearly 400 pages,
cloth, $2.00. Will be mailed and prepaid on the receipt of the price.
The following will be of Interest to railroad companics and others using steam:
Chicago and Grand Trunk Railroad Company Locomotive Department.

FORT QaATIOT STATION, June 18, 181 3.
Dear Sire;—The Westinghouse air pump on engine 78 was packed with asbestos wick packing
Nov. 11. 1882. Since that time I have run the engine 27,900 miles on passenger trains. The packing
was examined to-day and apparently will be good for a year longer. The stuffing-box nuts have
been screwed up 4 turn on the air cylinder and one turn on the steamside during that time, and I
have never noticed it leak any.
Yours truly, C. B Coxaaa, Engineer Engine 73. To H W. Johns Mfg, Co., New York.
A company with a capital of $200,000 Is forming at Mobile, Ala., to put up a furnace with a capacity
of sixty tons of iron a day.
At Kankakee, Ill., a barb-wire manufacturing company has been organized who propose to
mimufacture the wire without a license.
The Pratt & Cady Company, Hartford, Conn., expect to have their new shop done In August. It will
be 140x40 feet, two stories high, with a brass foundry 60x80 feet.
The Nicholson File Company, Providence, R. I., are building an addition, 80x40 feet, two stories, for
the manufacture of the finest grades of files for jewelers' use.
Somers Bros., Brooklyn, N. Y., manufacturers of presses and dies, have purchased a site for the
erection of a new machine slfbp In which to carry on their business.
Johnson & Willson, 91 Liberty et., New York, agents for Saylor's Portland Cement, and "Styr-'
Styr-
ian" Tool Steel, have issued a pamphlet relating to these two articles.
The Pennsylvania & New York Railroad Company is building it new foundry at Syracuse, N. Y. The
main building is to be 124 by 63 feet, and over three hundred men will be employed.
The machine shop for the new watch factory to be erected at Aurora, Ill., will be built at once. 'Pile
plans for the new Cotton mill have been made. The main building will be 100x211 feet.
The Haxtun Steam-Heater Company, of Kewanee, Ill., will build a shop 150x60 feet, two stories
brick, in which they will place $30,000 worth of machinery for the manufacture of steam brass
goods.reef long from their ola milt to tneir new glove shop. It connects direct to their 120 horse-
power water-wheel which will give steady power for their works.
General Duel, chief of ordnance, awarded contracts to the South Boston Iron Works for four 12-
inch rifled cannon at $30,000 cash, and one large mortar, price not named'; also the converting of
fifty 10-inch smooth-bore cannon into 8-inch rilies. The contract for tubing these guns has been
given: the West Point Foundry at $1,500 each, so that the' total cost of changing these pieces will
be $2,100 each.
Walter Scott (whose address is box 1220, Plainfield, N. J.,) has designed a new web-perfecting'
printing press, which he believes to be superior to the one designed by him, and now in use by
several leading daily newspapers. His press, as heretofore built, was illustrated and described in
the AmEnuCAN MACHINIST of March 25th, 1882. Mr. Scott is to build his new press in a factory
soon to be erected by himself.
The Helmbacher Forge and Rolling Mill Co. of St. Louis, are erecting a seventy-five ton testing
macldne and a new hammer at their works. This now hammer will give them a total of six hanr mers.
They will shut down their entire establishment to-day with the* exception of their blacksmith shop
and two hammers, which will be kept running. This is done for the purpose of taking stock, and
making necessary repairs.—Age of Steel.

The Wisconsin Malleable Iron Company, Milwaukee, contemplates enlarging its works by the
addition of 120 feet of foundry room, and an additional air furnace and two double annealing
ovens; when completed, employment will be given to 800 men, and an annual output of 3,000 tons
of malleable castings of the value in the aggregate of $400,000, will be maintained. Its orders this
season In amount have far surpassed any previous year up to this time.

Cooke & Co., 22 Cortlandt st., New York, have just published an illustrated catalogue of machinery
and supplies, containing 464 pages, bound in cloth. The volume, while not cumbersome, rep
resents a good assortment of shop-tool machines and supplies, including engines and boilers. It is
indexed so as to be bandy for reference. The latest improved tools are shown by cuts.
Accompanying the catalogue is a full price list (178 pages) which is also suitably indexed.

The Boston Commercial Bulletin says: "Thu Edwards Manufacturing Company, at Augusta, Me.,
have decided to close up all work of improvement on the company property at once, and also
abandon the project of a new factory. The reason assigned Is that the valuation placed upon the
property by the assessors is excessive, imposing a burden which similar property in the State does
not bear, and placing the Edwards Company at a disadvantage in a close and depressed market for
cotton goods.pounced that the railways of the United States are expected to haul It around the
country free of charge. Manufacturers of railway supplies have been induced, by much asking, to
contribute the various materials which are used In such a oar, on the ground that it is- to be drawn
all over the country, like Barnum's or Forepaugh's advertising car; and that It will, therefore, be a
huge advertisement of their wares. The names of I he charitable donors are engraved on tablets of
brass—a most appropriate material—placed In one end of the car; and railway managers are
presumed to be exceedingly eager to peruse and examine. As stated, this car was ostentatiously
displayed at the Exposition, and the beneficiary magnanimously awarded himself a gold medal for
the same. A medal was also awarded for a silver-service donated by some eleemosynary
gentlemen—although persistent searching of the catalogue fails to reveal that any prize was
offered for this class of goods. The Exposition thus joins the list of those who pay tribute, and its
name will doubtless be added to the brazen memorial."

Otto Flohr and Theo. Scheffier, two machinists and engineers, have opened a shop at the corner of
Green Street and Railroad Avenue, Newark, N. J., and have eommene 'the manufacture of a new
double cylinder friction-clutch hoisting engine. From practical experience, believing that many
accidents results from the use of poorly constructed machinery for this purpose, and that
accidents often occur from attempts to "adjust" such machinery by those of little experience In
such matters, they have incorporated agood many peculiarities in the construction of their hoisting
engine, the main idea, besides that of unusual strength, being to put it as far as possible beyond
the power of the operator to improperly adjust the parts by making them without the usual means
of adjustment. Thus the cylinder-bed, guides and main bearing are cast in one piece, the guides
being circular and bored out at the same time that the cylinder is bored. The main bearing is of
unusual length—from three to four diameters—and is fitted with a phosphor bronze bushing. The
connecting rod is of hammered iron, and is also fitted with solid bushes. The steam valve is a
balanced piston, the seat being cast solid with the cylinder, frame, &c. Provision is made against
tampering with the eccentric, and the cross-head gibs cannot be adjusted except by the use of
liners. The hoisting drum is spirally grooved for steel wire rope, and like the other parts is strong in
its construction. Special tools are made with which to do the work on these engines, so as to
insure accuracy in the alignment of the several parts. They are at present constructing to order one
of these engines to he used for hoisting stones and heavy building material, which is to hoist to a
height of 150 feet. In addition to hoisting-engines they will build iron elevators for builders, mining
engines, mining locomotives, yacht engines, and special machinery generally. The firm name is
Flohr & Scbeffler.

10        AMERICAN MACHINIST

The -National Pipe Bending Company, of New Haven, Conn., are putting in quite a number of their
feed water heaters, including two in Meriden, and three in Waterbury, Conn., and three in New
York City. They report their prospects as good.
NachinisW Supplies and Iron.
NEw YoRS, July 6, 1883. Nothwithstanding dullness of trade, prices for shop tools and supplies
remain strong, as a rule. Not much activity is expected in midsummer, and neither manufacturers
nor dealers seem much dis-
appointed by the state of trade.
There is a greatly improved feeling in pig Iron, and the market is 82 a ton higher than it was a
month ago. There is more inquiry though no large sales are reported. The blowing out of furnaces
has restricted the supply and No. 1 foundry bids fair to be scarce before the close of the year.
We quote No. 1, $22 to $23, No. 2 $19 to $20 and Grey Forge $18. Two hundred tons No. I sold at
the Exchange at $23.50 for October delivery. Scotch Pig is quiet, but steady at $24 for Coltness,
$21 50 for Eglinton. $22 for Glengarnock. and $24 to $24 50 for Gartsherrie. Wrought scrap is quiet
at 823.50 to $24 from yard. Old T rails are held at M. Steel rails sell at about $38 at mill. Ingot
copperis dull at 15Y4c. for Lake and 144c. for Baltimore; pig lead is quiet at 43¢c. for both
common And refined ; Banea tin sells at 22c., Straits and Malacca at 211,6 to 214¢; Billiton, at 21)¢
c. ; Australian, and L. and F. £14c.
Western Spelter has been selling 43c. to 4%c. Selesian Spelter 5c. dull at 50. to 53,1c. The supply
of Antimony is in excess of the demand, and quotations are 9%c. for Hallett's, and 1Oc. for
Cookson's.
Y Y A T
"Situation and Hela" Advertisements, 30 cents for
each seven words (one line) each insertton. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than Thur"
day
vzornrnq for the ensuing week's issue
BRASS WORKING MACHINERY,
121n. & 16 in. Monitors r        =        1-al,e Milling Mach's
Double Key
- -        _        _ _        Lathes,
Speed Lathes
-- ~~ ---`P         —        Slide Rests
Revolving
Chucks for
 -        [        31obe Valves,
-        _ i3-        F        I'sro-Jawed
Chucks,
 - -1        =        -        -----€_        small Tools
- _        and
 - -         —~ Fixtures.
WARNER & SWASEY, Cleveland, 0.
WILDE'S PATENT
Expanding Mandrel
is the most perfect novelty out.
SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE, ACCURATE.
COOKE & CO.,
22 CORTLANE T STREET, N. Y.
Sales Agents and Dealers in General
MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES.
Write for circular and mention this paper.
Wanted-A good moulder. Address Eureka
Foundry, Eureka, Nevada.         ~~
 Wanted, Tool Maker-A good workman can find        -~~_
permanent employment. Joel Hayden Brass Corn-        p        !R
pany, Lorain, O.        ~        r
..n
Wanted-A first-class pattern maker. Steady  work to right man. Address, Birmingham Iron Ct"  
Works, Birmingham, Ala.
~        k
Wanted-Fistclass pattern maker: to a good
man steady work and good pay. Write B. W.        tie ~lAip  Payne & Sons, Corning, N. Y.p
A practical mechanic, with years of experience, wishes to correspond with any one wishing to go
into horse-shoe nail business. Estimates given.
Geo. H. Smith, No. 55 Lyon st., New Haven, Ct.        ~_-- —
Wanted-situation by a first-class practical "iron
foundry foreman." Has large experience in all        - ___ —
kinds of machinery, and the general management *        t        '        1        ^ of men. References.
Address,£R.,735Riverst.,
Dayton, Ohio.        1
Licht and fine interchangeable machinery to
order. Foot and power lathes; slide rests, &c.        FOR HARD COAL OR COKE, Catalogue for
stamp. Edwd.O.Chase, Newark, N. J. BRADLEY & CO„ - Syracuse, N. Y. A practical mechanic, with
years of experience,
wishes to correspond wit-b any one wishing to go        THE into horse-shoe nail business.
Estimates given.
George H. Smith, No. 55 Lyon at., New Haven, Cf.        ^_
 For Sale, an Unusual Opportunity-Machine        '~_~-        AIlleI'in Drill Cdr
-k
and blacksmith shop, with large foundry, tools, and        =-___
patterns; having large run of custom work, as well        yIs the cheapest 3-parallel
as contract work in foundry. Located two blocks        =        j        Jaw Chuck. Price, $4.
from depot. Railroad side track on shop grounds        Sold by all Tool Dealers.
For information, call on or address William Fidler,        B~EZLE3 B :Z"., S46' 'rth 12th S!reet, P-1,1
elpL'.a. Pa. 171 Eighth avenue, Topeka, Kansas.
 Double-Acting Gas Motor.-The undersigned        F'S ^ tt -- A. I .F. C I 11C: A I-,
wishes to deliver the patent right of the above- A 12x36 A: r S C.2LISS EI,'1 E, i eac: ac::r:cr
named motor, and he will therefore begin a trans-        te^y reascas given shy acs i '.:::
action with manufacturers. This motor acts in the C U M M E R ENGINE C 0 COI I K8 b1IIlaIl $;S.
following way: Atmospheric Atmosphec air compresses alter-        t
nately upon both sides of the piston, as in steam        (' L 1?~' IL .AN . D, , OHIO. engines. This
motor can act backward or forward,
and can be put in everyhorse-power. It can bemo Mechanics, Engineers, &c used stationary, or
movable for locomotives on 1        ,
railroads, for street cars, or for navigating pur-        JOHN W I L E Y & SONS,
poses. For further information apply to Wm.        ,
Hamerschmidt, 909 Callowhill St., Phi,adelpbia, Pa.        15 AS'fOil PLACE, N h: w- ]"O1CK,
I USLISH
 Superior 10,12 & 16 in.        American Foundry Practice. Treating of Loam.
SPED L~THSI Dry Sand and Green Sand Moulding. and ement o a Practical Treatise upon the
Management of
Cupolas, and the Melting of Iron. By Thomas D.
West, practical Iron Moulder and Foundry Fore-
_______                Built by FAY & SCOTT, man, Fully illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $2.50.
Wrieklen and Recipes. Compiled from the SCIEN-
i        -. -        .-.        T)F\TER" M11 \ F:.        riprc A MFRTCA\" A collection of practical pro-
The Deane Steam
o        ~IOLYQKF., M
Send for new        92 .; Liberty St. 1 Ii Oliver St. j 49 N. 7th St. 1226
Illustrated          '.7-7 732:.        BOS'rCiI.        PEILA. Catalogue.
INDEPENDENT         s Z,lm PY~
CONDENSING APPARATUS        ' =—        Foi Every
A ~P FC`SAT.TY"        -
ETNIC)N S'IN'E C€
Patentees and         Manufacture
05 THE
UNION EMERY
EMERY, EMERY WHEEL MACHINERY AND TOO Automatic Knife Grinding Machines, Wood
Polishing Wheels, Grin Catalogues on application.        38 AND 40 HAWLLY STF
TIIE
M. T. Davidson Improved
31A ,UFACTURED BY
DAVIDSON ST
OFFICE t
4/ to 47 KEAP S
Warranted the Best Pu
KELLY & L and 51 North Seve
-RELATING TO-
Steam Engines, Machinery,
Heat, Gas, Electricity, Cast-        -
ing and Founding, &c,
DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE, 100 PAGES, 1SS3,        -- - SENT FREE ON APPLICATION.
& F. N. SPON, 35 Murray St., N. Y,
THE        S
HERCULE T
Gives more power for the same size, also better average results from full to one-half gate than any
other water wheel ever made. It is moderate in cost, compact in form, and not liable to get out of
order.
-BUILT BY-
THE HOLYOKE MACHINE CO,
SHOPS AT
Holyoke and Worcester, Mass,
Send for Catalogue, Circulars and Price List to either of the above places.
T111 CAMIRON ST

10
22 CORTLA.NET STREET. N. Y.
galas Agents and Dealers in GalPraf
MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES.
Write for circular and mention this paper.
hilq': %tin For es,
g        g
FOR HARD COAL OR COKE,
BRADLEY & CO., - Syracuse, N. Y.
THE
~_ =        ~~meri n Pull Jui~k
Is the cheapest 3-parallel
Jaw Chuck. Price, $4.  ^—        Sold by all Tool Dealers. B SBS:EE EECS., 440 N:rth 12th Street,
Ph: ladelphia. P.
Fe Ott CAI F1 CI1Il AP,
A 12x31 ATLAS SLISS ENGINE, W esccl'e-::rier ; sas`.at-
torc reascns given why it Ras lsp1a:ec ty too of oars.
CUMMER ENGINE CO.,Cor.Lake3~KirtlandS1s.
CLEI'F:L -1ND, OHIO.
To Mechanics, Engineers, &o.
JOHN WILEY & SONS,
13 ASTOR VL:1(.'E, \EW YORK,
PUBLISH
American Foundry Practice. Treating of Loam, Dry Sand and Green Sand Moulding. and
containing a Practical Treatise upon She Management of Cupolas, and the Melting of Iron. By
Thomas D. West. practical Iron Moulder and Foundry Foreman, Fully illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $2.50.
Wrinkles and Recipes. Compiled from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. A collection of practical
processes aid directions for the Mechanic, Engineer, Farmer and Housekeeper, with a Color
Tempering Scale, and numerous wood engravings. Edited by Park Benjamin, Ph. D. Revised by
Profs. Thurston and Vander Weyde, and Engineers Buel and Rose. Fourteenth edition. 12mo
cloth, $2.00
Saw Filing. A Practical Tteatise, in popular form, on the Sharpening, Gumming and Setting of all
kinds of Modern Saw Teeth. With many illustrations. 18mo, cloth, $1 00.
Steam Heating for Rnildines; or Hints to Steam Fitters. Being a description of Steam Heating
Apparatus for Warming and Ventilating Private Houses and Large Buildings. with Remarks on
Steam, Water and Air in their Relations to Heating. To which are added useful miscelianeou-
tables. By Wm. J. Baldwin. Third edition. With many illustrated plates. ltneo, cloth. $2.50.
***Descriptive Circulars Gratis.
)VAL.

Steam Pump Works
AOVE6 TO THEIR NEW QUARTERS,
erty St., New York.
DAVIDSON STEAM PUMP CO.,
OFFICE AND WORKS,
4/ to 47 KEAP ST., BP,OOKLYN, N. Y.
`=a—•:;:        - - - Warranted the Best Pump made for all situations,
KELLY & LUDWIG, AGENTS,
49 and 51 North Seventh Street, Philadelphia
 —RELATING TO—        llfl        7 MIT!$
Steam Engires, Machinery,
 Heat, Gas, Electricity, Cast-        _        Corn-Mills and Millstones,
 ing and Founding, &c.        THE BEST IN THE WORLD
 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE, 100 PAGES, 151,°.        FOR TABLE ti:EAL!
 SENT FREE ON APPLICATION.        NORTH CAROLINA MILLSTONE CO.

E. & F. N. SPON, 35 Murray St., N. Y.% / / rP ~a5e yention OCharn bereburg, Pa
THE HERCULES T
Gives more power for the same size, also better average results from full to one-half gate than any
other water wheel ever made. It is moderate in cost, compact in form, and not liable to get out of
order.

—BUILT BY
THE HOLYOKE MACHINE CO.
SHOPS AT
Holyoke and Worcester, Mass.
Send for Catalogue, Circulars and Price List to either of the above places.
(l ix. CUTRlxli-OF: MACHINE.
PUMP.
d of ~KCZ1i;n~e
ND ABROAD. IAMERON
np Works,
St., NEW YORK.
11-f1116N CO.
Del..
MACHINE
TOOLS
F' l:' 01
Improved Patterns.
Three sizes of Cutting-Off Machines: 23¢in., 4 in., and Sin.
T!
URBINE


Fi -- ?? CORTLANE T STREET. N.Y
30 cents for        idiis Agents all Dealers in Gen ral
Bch :oThurn. cdayopy MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES.
+ate
r than        s
tie        Write for circular and mention this paper.
Address Eureka
DAVIDSON STEAM PUMP CO.,
OFFICE AND WORKS,
4/ to 47 KEAP ST., BROOKLYN, N. Y.
=        — -        Warranted the Best Pump made for all situations.
KELLY & LUDWIG, AGENTS,
49 and 51 North Seventh Street, Philadelphia
 —RELATING TO—        Ilfl        COUNTF GRIT"
Steam Engines, Machinery,
 Heat, Gas, Electricity, Cast-        _        Corn-Mills and Millstones,
ALL SIZES.
ing and Founding, &c.        m        THE BEST IN THE WORLD
 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE, 100 PAGES, isv°.        FOR TABLE %ZEAL! h
 SENT FREE ON APPLICATION.         NORTH CAROLINA MILLSTONE CO.
E. & F. N.        f SPON 35 Murray St., N.Y.—ti th
 Y. I        j/ /,        ChaP,ber'°urg, P°
/ [Pitaa1        — is uner.)
THE HERCULES T
Gives more power for the same size, also better average results from full to one-half gate than any
other water wheel ever made. It is moderate in cost, compact in form, and not liable to get Out of
order.
—BUILT BY
THE HOLYOKE MACHINE CO.
SHOPS AT
Holyoke and Worcester, Mass,
URBINE
Send for Catalogue, Circular., and Price List I
to either of the above places.        L        _
THE ...'XCAM[ROEM STEAM PUMP.
;._~'        —1        Is the Spa ivi of I~ce11=
6 1N. CUTTJIfu;-oa: N.CHINE.
ND ABROAD. "AMERON
np Works,
St.. NEW YORK.
IIAHINIT CO,
W_.., Del.,
MACHINE
TOOLS
F'P,u~C
Improved Patterns.
Three sizes of Cutting-Off Machines: 2%in., 4 in., and 8 in.
Bnilq': Heatin For es, g        g
FOR HARD COAL OR COKE,
BRADLEY & CO., - Syracuse, N. Y.'
THE
~--s ==        Mme in Dill Chuck
y_...._-
~,=r.r=—        Is the cheapest 3-paralle
Jaw Chuck. Price, $4.  —~~'~ Sold by all Tool Dealers. B SE& 8CS., 440 N:rth 12th Street, P*. lade:
phia. Pa.
F'( Sit        A .F CIi14-AI,
A 1236 ATLAS ::.',LISS ESGINE, W caceL'es: crier ; sats:a.
tore reascee gicea why it was d o ;ace@ ty one of ours.
CUMMER ENGINE CO.,Cor.Lake&KirtlanflS1s.
CLEV'EL 1ND, OHIO.
To Mechanics, Engi leers, &c.
JOHN WILEY & SONS,
13 ASTOR PL\CE, NEW YORK,
P UBLISH
American Foundry Pr•etice. Treating of Loam, Dry Sand and Green Sand Moulding. and
containing a Practical Treatise upon the Management of Cupolas, and the Melting of Iron. By
Thomas D. West, practical Iron Moulder and Foundry Foreman, Fully illustrated. 12mo, cloth, $2.50.
Wrink lea and Recipes. Compiled from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. A collection of practical
processes aid directions for the Mechanic, Engineer, Farmer and Housekeeper, with a Color
Tempering Scale, and numerous wood engravings. Edited by Park Benjamin, Ph. D. Revised by
Profs. Thurston and Vander Weyde, and Engineers Buel and Rose. Fourteenth edition. 12mo
cloth, $2.00
Saw Fifnr. A Practica' Tfeatise, in popular form, on the Sharpening, Gumming and Setting of all
kinds of Modern Saw Teeth. With many thustrations. 18mo, cloth, $1 00.
"team Heating for Buildines; or Hints to Steam Fitters. Being a description of Steam Heating
Apparatus for Warming and Ventilating Private Houses and Large Buildings, with Remarks on
Steam, Water and Air in their Relations to Heating. To which are added useful miscellaneon,t
tables. By Wm. J. Baldwin. Third edition. With many
illustrated plates. limo, cloth. $2.50.
***Descriptive Circulars Gratis.
)VAL.
Steam Pump Works
lOVE6 TO THEIR NEW QUARTERS,
erty St., New York.



10 copy
DAVIT
4/to-
W arraII:
COOKE & CO.,
22 CORTLANE T STREET, N. Y.':
tales Ants and Dealers in General
MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES.
`.'rite for circular and mention this paper.
1        -                wwn        1—___        1        49 al
         tiLLYE        
                 
                 r~ 3 1 F :~S _,        :,
                 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 100 PAGES, ISS3,
•                        SENT FREE ON APPLICATION.
--        =        __ =        E, a F. N. SPON, 35 Murray 5:., :', Y.
 '        M        
1iHi        tsn g        Foy        ~s        
         g        THE HERCUL:
Licht and fine interchangeable machinery to        G1ves more power for the sa
Order. Foot and power lathes; slide rests, &c-.        FOR HARD COAL OR COKE,
Catalogue for stamp. EdwdO.Chase,Newark,N.J. BgADLEY & CO.,        Syracuse, N, Y, also better
average results 1
A practical mechanic, with years of ecperienc        to one-half gate than any oth
wishes to correspond with any one wishing to go        THE        } into horse-shoe nail business.
Estimates given.
_^_ Sale, an Unusual        wheel     ever made. It 1 S m O 1
For
~~'^_
GeorgeH. Smith, No.55 Lyon at., NewHaven, Ct. ~,        ~ ,~li~(1 ~~)l r~        i
,        O         -        171ll111(1(1 vj~~i C'll~~k
Opportunity–Machine        ' –~_~
and blacksmith shop, with large foundry, tools, and        COSt, Co m pact 1 n i Orm, and r
patterns: having large run of custom work, as well        Is the cheapest 3-parallel
as contract work in foundry. Located two block, id        Ja        BY–
w Chuck all . T Price, $4 – to get out of order.
by
from depot. Railroad side track on shop ground-        = =        1        .- 1 Dealers.
For information, call on or address William F.• :        ---y ,          ..t        1. _ •        –BW.T
1T1 Eighth avenue, Topeka,  Kansas        r        –        r        THE H 0 L Y 0 K E        CHI
Doighth v Double-Acting Gas Motor.–The nndersi_ .        F4 It ~ .a i.F CIIEA P,
wishes to deliver the patent right of the abos, _         _...
named motor, and he will therefore begin it trans-        ._.._        --        _        . –_        ____
action with manufacturers.        This motor acts in th        -
 CUMMER ENGINE CG.,CC',i 1cS'_.::._=:::c.
following way: Atmospheric air compresses alter-        (LEVEL -t        D, OHIO.
nately upon both sides of the piston, as in steam        
engines.        This motor can act backward or forward,        
and can be put in every horse-power.        It can be        
movable for locomotives on        1        &c.
used stationary, or        To        Mechanics,        Engineers,        &c
railroads, for street cars, or for navigating our-        JOHN,
For further information apply to Wm           W I L E Y & SONS,
poses.        15        ASTOR P1. 11 E.        – I? 11' YORK,
Hamerschmidt, 909 Callowhill St.. Phi,adelphia, Pa.        
Superior 10,12 & 16 in        American Foundry Practice.        Treating of Loam,
 Dry Sand and Green Sand Moulding. and containing
                 f
                 aPractical Treatise upon the Management of
                 Pr
`                        Cupolas, and the Melting of Iron.        By Thomas D.
                 West. practical Iron Moulder and Foundry Fore-
I3uilt by FAY & SCOTT        man.        Fully illustrated.        12mo. cloth, $2.50.
y        Wrinkle% and Recipes. CompiledfromtheSCIEN-
DEXTER        TIFIC AMERICAN.        A collection of practical pro-
DEXTER, MAINE.        
Send        for Description.        ceases and directions for the Mechanic. Engineer.
 Farmer ando, with aColor
JOSIAH MACYrS SO!1s        Scale, and numerous wood engravings.s.        Edited by
f        Park Benjamin, Ph. D. Revised by Profs. Thurston
 and ~"anderii"eyde, and Engineers Buel and Rose.
1S9 & 191 Front Street New York        Fourteenth edition.        12mo, cloth, 52.00
s        s        
MANT.FACTUJIEES OF        yaw Filing.        A Practical Treatise, in        popular
 form, on the Sharpening, Gumming and Setting of
 all kinds of Modern Saw Teeth.        With many illus-
Machinery, Engine Cylinder        trations.        18mo, cloth, I1 00.
,        ,        Steam Heating for Bnlldlnas; or Hints to Steam
and Tempering        Fitters.        Being a description of Steam Heating
 Apparatus for Warming and Ventilating Private
 To        and Large Buildings, with Remarks on
 Steam. Water and Air in their Relations to Heating.
C) IL5        whic
 To which are added useful miscellaneous tables.
 By Wm. J. Baldwin. Third edition.        With many
 Illustrated plates.        12mo, cloth, $2.50.
Famples Submitted Free.        Established 1822.        *,.'Descriptive Circulars Gratis.
REMOVAL.
Knowles' Steam Pump Works
HAVE REMOVED TO THEIR NEW QUARTERS,
93 -Liberty St., New York.
SHOPS AT
Holyoke and Worcester,
Send for Catalogue, Circulars and to either of the above places.
Ti-
6 15. CCTTINti-OF: -MACHINE.

ANTE D'~
.. -        -^,F7. 30 rssi:1 for
ten c        {rrtion. Copy
81, odd to e,nt -        in T)t+tr•'aay
n00rn+rg for l7,- - :ing .,        - Wanted–A good moulder. Address Eureka
Foundry, Eureka, Nevada.
Wanted, Tool Maker–A good workman can find permanent employment. Joel Hayden Brass
Company, Lorain, O.
Wanted–A first-class pattern maker. Steady work to right man. Address, Birmingham Iron Works,
Birmingham, Ala.
Wanted-Frstclas pattern make do a good man steady work 1 good pay. iYrlte B. W. Payne & Sons,
Cor _ N.Y.
A practical mect.        experience,
wishes to corresp' :        '-hing to go
into horse-shoe na:        - _ates given.
Geo. H. Smith, No. L        `oven, Ct.
Wanted-situation by -        rival "iron
foundry foreman." H.+ ._r -        in
kinds of machinery, and the een--        .en_
of men. Referer, - .\ idre-- -'.
Dayton, Ohio.
AMERICAN MACHINIST.
pg 11 top
NICHOLSON FILE 00.7
SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF
ES AND RASPS
HAVING THE INCREMENT CUT.
'ILERS' TOOLS AND SPECIALTIES.
3" Files and Rasps, "Double Ender" Saw Files, "Slim" Says Files, Rasps, Handled Riffiers,
Machinists' Scrapers, File Brushes, File Cards, Holders, Vise File Holders, Stub Files and Holders,
Improved Butchers' Steels
d Offices at PROVIDENCE, R. I. - U. S. A.
ESTIMONIAL ON THE tIERITS OF THE
ICKEL-SEATED "POP" SAFETY VALVE,
1IE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO., No. 30 C•ortlau it St. '        NEW YORK AND GLASGOW.
NEW YORK, April 6th, lee, THE CONSOLIDATED SAFETY VALVE CO., Ill Liberty St., N. Y.
Gentlemen:
Our experience in Safety Valves has been a varied one, extending over S 15 years, (luring which
time we have tried nearly every valve placed on the market just long enough to become
•thoroughly disgusted with thl working of each and every one of them. We learned all their faults
and what to avoid. With this experience in our favor, we have designed quit, a number of valves,
which we hoped would overcome the difficulties we had m' t, but since trying the Consolidated
Safety Valve Co.'s NICKEL SEATED "POP" SAFETY VALVE, we have come to the conclusion that
we can make more money selling boilers than we can in designing safety valves.
In 1852, we bought ores 300 of your 3", 33¢" and 4-inch calves and still hate the first complaint to
makein regard to therm, and though costing us nearly one hundred per cent, more than the best
competing valve, we consider it money well spent to adopt it for use on all our work. Expecting
soon to send you further orders, we are, very truly yours,
THE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. NAT. W. PRATT, Tares.
VIONITORa"        FRIEDMANN'S
Patent Ejectors,
OR
MATER ELEVATORS,
For Conveying Water and Liquids.
at Oilers I Lubricators, &ol
NATHAN & DREYFUS,
Patentees and Manufacturers,
92 and 94 Liberty Street;
NEW YORK.
Send for Illustrated Catalogue.
HEAD SCREW MACHINES —WITH P:ITENF
.1UTONI.ITIC WIRE FEED. )f Extra Strength and Power, of a Superior Design and Finish.
7 & MACHINE WORKS, 712 Cherry St., Philadelphia, Penn.
. B E M E N T& SON, PHILADELPHIA.PA.
N IRON COMPANY,
LECOUNT'S STRAIGHT TAIL DOG. — To be driven from a Stnd in the Face Plate,
-'        So. 1,        RICES-
 ' in.        $ .70        'so 10, 44 in.,
2,        Y. "        .80        1l,2"
-        a,        1        .80        ,.        ..
         12, 3
4                
 l 6 `i        95        I8, 3S¢        ;`
         i'
~~        6,        If}y        '        1.10        15, 43¢        1
7,        IX        1.10        16,
"        8,        1V4 `~        1.25        "        17, r
`        9,        2        1,40        te, 6        ..
I Set to 2 inches,$9.05        Full Set,        -
. t 7- LoCOTJIVT, South Norwtt11 ., Corm.
CENTRE        ONE        BRASS        MFG. C
         
GRINDER !                CHICAGO, ILL.
Manufacturers of
Orme's Patel LOCOMOTIVE
MARINE
RELIT
LOCK-UP
SAFETY VALVE
These Valvea Lane be approved by U. S. Gone
Ill eat
N. Y. Once. 115 BrOadw
CUTTING a OFF 1IACIIE^
44 in. and 2' in.
CENTERING MACHINES,
4i in. and 2 in.
WARREN HASKELL & CO,, Boston, Ma
FBurgess' B1aw P.: .        'very intelligent
clot worker, for I. :i:; • ro, . 1;,—),•_.        llar- and Soft Sot
ring. Gives Geatlen Flame or Hottest Blast. $10. (tires rs free. J. ELLIOTT SHAW, 1515. }'eu-'.h S,
Phil, T. NEW'S PREPARED
ROOFING
For steep or flat roofs. Applied by ordinary wort m at one-third the cost of tin. Circulars and
samples ft Aeenta Wanted. T. NEW, 38 John Street, New To
SCHAFFER c EUDENEERG,
40 JOHN STREET, N. Y.
EXHAUST INJECTOR.
Worked by Exhaust Steam Alone.        P ---- °
Takes the place of Feed Pump, Heater, and by Con-,
densing the Exhaust Steam removes the Back Pressure. — t, U        rI        Utilizes a power
heretofore thrown away. Works auto-
!        matically at a steam pressure of less than half a pound.
I        Adapted to all pressures. For Locomotives as well as
Stationary Engines.
Np        WORKS AT BUCKAU, GERMANY.
`"        AGENTS:
{ '
GDOW S CO...1 ................. . t r e e --..        oston.
 G. W. ST W. STORER............1•IPfcrth Third Street, PhillhiladBelphia.        '
—. MURRILL & KEIZER .................................Baltimore-HAY& PRENTICE ......................................Chicago.
N. 0. NELSON MANUFACTURING CO ..............St. Louis.
-        W. H. DILLINGHAM k CO .........................:.Louisville.
C        (        lli~'
4, •        HOWARD IRON WH.............        i Cincinnati.
'
THE T. J. NOTTINGHAM M'F'G 'F'G G & SUPPLY CO„ oga.
 •'".LOWS.LOW A KIRK ...............................Chattanooga,Tenn Tenn-        l„
W. T. GARRATT ..............................San Frsnciseo, Cpl.
OUR SPECIALTY IS
Economical Powers
Of5to25H.P.
Of 1,900 in use not one has Exploded, or can show a rupture—due to
their absolute safety
T- -        and simplicity.
I NOM17TIN: INJECT0~I
ER FEEDERS IN THE N ORLD.
E96 9C9IBE
MANUFAC'TC'RER, )
1 Dll!J
of all descriptions and a treat number of sizes, including
STEAM HAMMERS,
Steam and Hydraulic Riveters. Cranes, Punches & Shears, Bending Rohs, Plate Planers
For truing, hardened
centres and keeping
true, without remov-
ing from lathe, or drawing temper. Simple, quickly adjusted to any lathe, and does its work
perfectly.
Price complete, with
emery wheel, boxed, IS 15.
Send for circular to
Trump Bros. Mach, Co.,
Manufacturers,
rn5.:r, DeL, U.S.A.
}LW.J0HNS'
ASBESTOS ROPE PACKING,
ASBESTOS WICK PACKING; ASBESTOS FLAT PACKING, ASBESTOS SHEATHINGS,
ASBESTOS GASKETS,
ASBESTOS BUILDING FELT, Made of strictly pure Asbestos.
H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO.,
87 MApnEN LANE, NEW YORK,
Sole Manufacturers of H, W. Johns' Genuine ASBESTOS LIQUID PAINTS ROOF PAItiTS, ROOFING,
STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS, FIREPROOF', COATINGS, CEMENTS, ETC.
Descriptive price lists and samples free.


11 bott
work tne of each and every one of them. We iearned all heir faults and what to avoid. With this
experience in our favor, we have designed quite a number of valves, which we hoped would
overcome the difficulties we had m t, but since trying the Consolidated Safety Valve Co.'s NICKEL-
SEATED "POP" SAFETY VALVE, we have come to the conclusion that we can make more money
selling boilers than we can in designing safety valves.
In 1852, we bought orer 300 of your 3", 334" and 4-inch values and still have the ftrst complaint to
make in regard to then, and though costing us nearly one hundred per cent. more than the best
competing xalve, we consider it money well spent to adopt it for use on all our work. Expecting
soon to send you further orders, we are, very truly yours,

THE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. NAT. W. PRATT, TREAS.
-I        Yz7
THE "MONITOR."
FRIEDMANN'S
Patent Ejectors,
OR
WATER ELEVATORS,
For Conveying Water and Liquids.
Pat1 Oilers & Lubricators, &ci
NATHAN & DREYFUS,
Patentees and Manufacturers,
rt Stfee  t
NEB LIFTING &RON-LIFTING INJEOT0fl1 92 and NEW YORK.
 BEST BOILER FEEDERS IN THE        send for Illustrated Catalogue.
WORLD,
REVOLVING HEAD SCREWeMACHINESrA WIT
Finish. h PATENT
  R        W RE FEED.
WICACO $CREW & MACHINE WOKS, 712 Cherry St., Philadelphia, Penn.
MAN Cherr
B. B E M E N T &SON' PHIL PDAELPHIA.
Of
METALOPU AMEWTHH.
of all descriptions and a great num- her of sizes, including
STEAM HAMMERS,
Steam and Hydraulic Riveters. Cranes, Punches & Shears, Bending Rolls, Plate Planers

AKRON IRON COMPANY,
PATENT
HOT
POLISHED
SHAFTING.
Or E. P. BULLARD,
AKRON, O.
Superior to any shafting in market for the foll qwing reasons. Tiz.:
1st.—It is perfectly straight and round. 2d.—ft can be rolled ac-
curatelp to any desired gauge. 3d.—It bas the beautiful blue finish of Russia Sheet Iron, rendering it
less liable to rust or tarnish than shafting of the ordinary finish. 4th.—It will NOT SPRING or WARP
IN KEY SEATING like most of the other manufactured shafting sold in the market, and, as a
consequence, is admirably adapted for LINE AND COUNTER SHAFTING. 5th.—The surface is
composed of MAGNETIC OXIDE OF IRON, forming a superior journal or bearing surface. 6th.- It is
made of superior stock.
Sizes made from 34 to 334 inches, advancing by sixteenths. Price lists, with references and other
information, furnished on applica-
tion to

AKRON IRON CO., Akron, 0., Sole Manuf'rs, 14 Dey Street, New York, General Eastern Agent.
Improved Hoisting Engines.
Specially adapted for
MINING PURPOSES.
ALL SIZES.
With Reversible Link Motion, or
Patent Friction Drum.
S..nu t,eiored 5, the

LIDGERWOOD MF'G CO.
Offices and Salesroom : si Liberty
Street, N. Y.
Works: Partition, Ferris. and Dike-
man Streets, Brooklyn +
ll. S. WORMER & SONS, Agents,
Chicago, St. Louis A Detroit.
1IUIDP 151113. Kim. bU., " `~!.        . =a1
ManufacturersN
I
W

 ASBESTOS ROPE PICKING,        WARREN HASKEI
ASBESTOS WICK PAC KING;
ASBESTOS FLAT PACKING, ASBESTOS SHEATHINGS,
ASBESTOS GASKETS,
ASBESTOS BUILDING FELT,
Made of strictly pure Asbestos.
H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO.,
87 MAFOEN LANE, NEW YORK,
Sole Manufacturers of H. W. Johns' Genuine ASBESTOS LIQUID PAINTS ROOF PAINTS, ROOFING,
STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS, FIREPROOF COATINGS, CEMENTS, ETC.
Descriptive price lists and samples free.
SCHAFFER SUDEN
40 JOHN STREET, N. Y.
EXHAUST INJECT
Worked by Exhaust Steam Alone.
'rakes the place of Feed Pump, Heater, and by Cc
densing the Exhaust Steam removes the Back Press m
I        Utilizes a power heretofore thrown away. Works aul
tJ        ti        matically at a steam pressure of less than half a pour
~.        Adapted to all pressures. For I.orom,.ticrs :,, well Stationary Engines.
H lWORKS AT BUCKAU, GERMANY. AG-EZvTS:
-u 'L1 BRAMAN. DOW S CO .................................. _Bost G. W. STORER............149 North Third Street,
Philadelpk MURRILL& KEIZER .................................Baltimo HAY& PRENTICE ......................................
Chica; N. 0. NELSON MANUFACTURING CO ..............St. lot
1 -ii ij W. H. DILLINGHAM d CO ...........................Louiscil
HOWARDIRON WORKS ............................ ..Butfs
C        j   

THE T. J. NOTTINGHAM MPG &SUPPLY CO., Cincinni
1_        LOWE A KIRK ..... ........        .... .........Chattanooga, Tei W. T. GARRATT ..............................San
Francisco, C
OUR SPECIALTY IS
Economical Powers
Of5to25H.P.
Of 1,900 in use not one has Exploded, or can show a rupture—due to
,heir absolute safety
and simplicity.
In finish and construct mirable, and will compare higher price. Each is bull duplicating parts—a
poin tomers. Correspondence mailed to any address.
SKINNER &
F~TAaLI-nrD I't;-
WORTH
HENRY R. IN
145 BROADWAY AND 86 &
70 liilby St., Boston. 95 Lake St., Chicago.
B         Pipe Pump.
worker, for Tempering,
. Gives Gentlest Flame
J. ELLIOTT SHA
T. NEW'S
ROOT
for steep or flat roofs. At at one-third the cost of tin. Aeenta Wanted. T. NEW
GF ~~V~SZPA`~ 9.11E ELp.

THE BRAYTON PETROLEUM ENGINE CO.
50 Federal St,        g t4,
BOSTON, MASS.M
xlm°
SAFETY! ECONOMY! CONVENIENCE!
Expense Ceases when Engine is Stopped.
While the cheapest motor in the world for continuous running, the cost of fuel becomes a mere
trifle when power is required at intervals only. J. R. SMITH.        ...Philadelphia Pa.
G. S. WORMER & SONS....... Detroit, Rich.
.G. S. WORMER h SONS......... Chicago, Ill Agents. T. B. BOWMAN .................. St. Louis, Mo.
ROBINSON 1 CARY...........St. Paul. Minn. I
12-AMERICAN MACHIIN TST        1JULY 21, 1£883
HE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR
tandard for Stationary, Marine, Locomotive AND ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS.
er 45,000 in Use.
lopted by the Largest YLills and Manufactories.
Circulars to
THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO.
CTR 11:;T 13nSTON.
1y3 WjR: MACHINE MOULDED
tSpur and Bevel
f
,atents ownec-        ~ i, Pittsburgh
ition, address        ` 0~
:AR,        a        a:
I RY, CONN.         %:O :astill s &0I
N E        '/~1~~        Special Inducements
y        to the Trade.
List mailed on application.
3ATICN POOLE tic HUNT,
ERklh11        Bahi^tr.,- Md,
IN USE,
~•nraey,Safety,
ibilitp, Work-
n. Address,
overnor Co.,,
No. 9 DE7 S:.        ~        _                Hydraulic, Steam, Belt,
___        s        -~
-        and Hand Power,
H U C K        
  With most approved Safety
o        Devices such as
  
e'o4C,        PTET!=-
G~~                ALBRO-HINDLEY
  SCREW GEARING.
  41l & =i3 CHEEP,Y ST., PL—,
  Branch 0IOre,108 Liberty St. N.Y.
                  ORICINAL
VFNOCONI                                Steam Gauge Co,
STEAM                Incorporated Estab. in 1351.
'LANE1R                Incorporated in l'-s4.
1                
G AUG E                
anes 16 inches                
i and aide, and'        WITH                
12 inch Stroke.        LA:~IE~S                
has power,                --
ss and angular lypEOVMEi.                
nfeed as shown        -        '
ut, or cross feed                s.        j
if desired.        ©        -        _
Iso, quick return        -
ion and        screw        
,ning        whole        
th under bed.        
is self-oiling in        
rays.        ('^
A.BELDEN
CD        IMPROVED
~'
~bur~,~onn. Tholllpson S Indicators t_IISLEII &
POLAR PLANIIIETER,
AND THE PANTO(=R_ I'ii.
AMERICAN STEAM GAUGE CO.,
.4_'.
Sole Manufacturers.FIFTEEN YEARS' RECORD
HARRISON SAFETY BOILERS
5OCT11 31A-NLeeedTLx, CT.. April ;th, 1sSS. HARRISON BOILER WORKS, Philadelphia, Pa.
Gentlemen:-In reply to your favor to our Mr. Frank Chaney (who is now absent in Florida,) making
inquiry of our experience with the HARRISON BOILER, will say that, we have eighteen of them
comprising 1200-horse power in our works, some of which have been in constant use over fifteen
years, and apparently in as good condition and working as well to-day as when first erected.
We have always found them very economical in fuel, and when constructed of good material very
economical in repairs, quick generators, producing large quantity of very dry steam, easy in care,
easily and readily cleaned and repaired, and adding their entire safety from explosions, we
consider them among the best, if not the best Boiler in market.        Yours very truly.
CHENEY BROS.,
By C. S. Cheney.
Descriptive catalogues, drawings and estimates promptly furnished.
HARRISON SAFETY BOILER WORKS, GermaatoWi Iaactioa. Philadelphia, Pa.
SPECIAL ENGINES,
AUTOMATIC AND CHEMICAL
FIRE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENTS,
Machines Perfected and Special Machinery Built,
MARCUS RUTHENBURG & CO., Cincinnati, O.
  SendforCat        to W N~NL41.
POWER PUNCHES, SHEARS'        ~1 ii11LiYN Vi        ii i1L alogue
  alogu to
AT2V~'R~-        JAMES D. FOOT, Sole Agent,
We make over 1PJ sizes of Punches and Shears,        No. I 01        CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK.
Double and Single, varying from 500 to 88,000 pounds        -        THE
In weight, and adapted for every variety of work        
The Dou?,:e machines are e ijai to two Slrzle ones        
meach aid e_~orked .en c.        d,        1                
ADJUSTABLE HELVE        ,1tP `P_                
  '        II flh I r        Ill i11:        
CUSHIONED HAMMERS                        
  
The Lon,- & Alls arter Co..        -
HAMILTON, OHIO.                :—a        Its         as
          
''I'iI'                already in use.        Send for circular.
          DWIGHT SLATE,
o        "'        IIARTFOItD, CONE.
i        e        SHAPING MACHINES,
  
  
~HiARL'ES        IIFZR~^Y '-        6 in. and S in. Hand and Power.
_        e        t        SD FOR C
  ~E        IBCL-L~R
  BOY NTON &-- PLUM IER, ---
NEW HAVEN MANUF'G CG-
Lathes
.w,        Planers,
Shams_
CLEM & MORSE
ELEVATORS

F. E. REED,
Worcester, Mass.


12 top 1883-AMERICAN MACHINIST.
THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR 1        FIFTEEN YEARS4
The Standard for Stationary, Marine, Locomotive HARRIS O N S A P E u
~        w
HARRISON BOILER WORKS, Philadelphia, Pa. Gentlemen;—In reply to your favor to our fir. Frank
Chat
AND ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS.        ing inquiry of our experience with the HARRISON BOILER.w
compnsmg 1200-horse power in our works, some of which have and apparently in as good
condition and working as well to-da 5        i T        p        We have always found them very economical
in fuel, an
® V e I        v, 0 O 0 I in y•~ l        V S e. very economical in repairs, quick generators, producing large
easily and readily cleaned and repaired, and adding their entii
them among the best, if not the best Boiler in market.        Y.
Adopted by the Largest Mills and Manufactories.
Send for Circulars to
THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO.
Descriptive :' . ues. dr:••        _ and estimat
IIARIUSOX SAFETY BOILING WORI~
SPECIAL EN
34 BL CH STRBFT, BnST()TN.
~rt~^}~~i~ >res asn4cluo P I wIR~ MA C H I N E M 0 U L D E D y + j+        exa oLrTN3         Spurand
Beve! by compression or swaging COLD, Ida-
  chines manufactured under patents wner        P        n oy Miller,ler, Metcalf calf & Parkin, Pitto
aurah,
Pa. For machines or information, address
S. W. GOODYEAR,
.
  WATERBtiRY, CO.        —        11y Castia s, &ct
THE        -
Special Inducements
  to ail        the Trade.
List mailed on application.
,j,j,,,GARDNE
COMPENSATICN POOLE & HUNT,
GOVERNOR
CLEM & MORSE
OVER 25,000 IN USE, l nequaled for Accuracy, Sat•rty,
Convenience, Durability, \Work- V9 -        ___        manslup, and Desicn. Address,
  The Gardner Governor Co.,        I"
QUINCY, ILL 9 .        l        gydraulic, Steam, Belt
  ..        ST.        1        ~'        ,
  THE NATIONAL CHUCK        ''         mostapdovd Safety approved safety Devices such as
  j7' ~~"~C~        A'1T'OIATIC HATCH DOORS,
  OG        PNEQHATIC SAFETY CLUTCH, &c,
4 ` '        I        ALBRO-HINDLEY SCREW CEARINC.
~~        ~,P~        i        411 & 113 CHERRY ST., Phila,
Q^ ~~~'        I        %        Bnprh ORP,108 Liberty St. N.Y.
__ •        1~ '1J         ORIGINAL
  NATIONAL M'F'G CA,NEWHAVFI1CON!!'$OVRD~~Y        Steam Gauge Co.
  IMPROVED CRANK PL strokeANER. STEAM        ren W5 Incocorpoporatatedd in 155.1
  Planes 16 inct,ee 11 G I IJ "' E        ,t
  high and wide, and        WITH has 12 inch
  4        It has power,        L V
_1NS
,e
  cross and angular         -
down        ~~ 1
  down feed as shown        h—
  in cut, or cross feed        ~
  on1R if desired.        ,,:~
--        Also, quickreturn        -        -
  motion and screw        --
  running whole        ~'P
  a        length under bed.
It is self-oiling in —        _ -        its ways.
  R.A.BELDENI        IMPROVED
__        = =         & co.        ThOR1pS0I1'S Indicators'
  Danbury, Conn.        AMI&sLEHI
POLAR PLANIJIETER, AND THE PANTOGRAPH.
„oE?E        AMERICAN STEAM GAUGE Sole Manufacturers.
Co.,
T C :ATIC AND
FIRE EXTINGUISHING
Machines Perfected and Speci-,
MARCUS RUTIHENBURG &
WA.CUSHMANr TF~RD.Cnyy =


POWER PUNCHES, SHEARS,
mZ i~/t Zvi = S.
We make over lIE sizes of ?        -== i'_ _--
3ouble and Single. varcinz from Sii : - 3 -Y _ -7 di
in weight and adapted for every care-        _ -rk The Double machines are equal to tw_
as each side is worked independent y. .SL.:
ADJUSTABLE HELVE
CUSHIONED HAMMERS Of all sizes. nne.naedf-r-= - :a='
The Long & Allstatter Co..
HAMILTON. OHIO.
(ZH'ARL        II
'ESIDRAY --
HEW HAVEN MANUF'G CO..
Lathes,
Planers,
4-'



12-bott
-- compression or ewag-ng COLD. Ua_ _es manufactured under patents owner ' - 'ti:;er, Metcalf &
Parkin, Pittsburgh, Pa. For machines or information, address
S. W. GOODYEAR,

MUULl1t;1)
Spur and Bevel
GEARS
FIRE EXTINGUISHING
Machines Perfe'c:ed an.a
MARCUS RUTHENBURG &
EQUI CO_C
A        CUSHMAN        ue,~.,~,        
'.        •-        
  9 i        C2oeL        
  L,Le; Saes        
HAPTFORO.Cf1NN.L'.S.A-        eryoom        
Ir1
L1
,-5'r
POWER PUNCHES, SHEARS,
f3A_VzZ1z=R S.
ADJUSTABLE HELVE
CUSHIONED HAMMERS
O a =:Z^. ~-•:~.' _-
The Long & Allstatter Co.,
HAMILTON, OHIO.
(' HARL'E S MII P,1:AY~ -- ~~S ANN' ST. 4
NEW HAVEN MANUFG CO., New 'Have:., Conn.
Lathes,
Planers, Shapers,
Slotters,~
Etc.
MAKERS OF AI
.end f r
JAMES D. FC
No. 101 CHAMBERS

AdaMe drilretlA
prevent
]        of drill
9]        with at
ing. Ir
ferent I
already -D N
SHAPING
6 in. and 8 In.
SEND FO BOYNTON & PL1
Engine Lath(
SLIDE RESTS an
i        WATERBURY, CONN.         •gi%/i        Fulley Ctastinps, 101 I,
THE        t`1 GARDNERSpecial Inducements
to the Trade. List mailed on application.

COMPENSATION FOOLS, & HUNT,
GOVERNORBaLtimr.., d.
btu OYER 25,000 IN USE. CLEM & MORS
   Unequaled for Aturary,Safetf,        - -
Tj        -        Convenience, Durability, Work-
  manship, and Desiu. Address,        -.
The Gardner Gcverncr Co.,
t-w:~        QUINCY, ILL.        IIp        Steam,
E
  7 F0cc AvENTS, JA2IES 'BE;ruS $ C:., No. 9 DEY ST.        HH1        u 1 dra~ llc,        Belt,
THE NATIONAL CHUCK-'andtappoo~tei
  ~        Withm~
mr~t apped Safetc
- ~:` ¢        ALBRO-HINDLEY
...        JQ4' ~,~ ~~E'        s_        SCREW CEARINC.
BlaPCl OTIirP..t6 LibErt, St. N.Y.
ORIGINAL
  NATIONAL M'F G CO.NEWHAVFN.SCONI! ~OVRDO~        ±        Steam Gauge Co.
OVED
RANK PLANER STEAM        In orportaeai nn851,.
IMPR        C        G~VGL+  
  Planes 16 Inenes        ~
  high and wide, and        WITH
t        hae L inch stroke.
L\_\EIS        3 '..
~:'"        It has power,
cross and angular ;`,P3pVZIIEI' .
down feed as shown in cut, or cross fee
L4        only, if desirked.
A I so, quic return
  motion and screw        -
  running whole,        'A
a        length under bed.        a,-        It is self-oiling in
_        its ways.
  R. A. BELDEN        `J &,IMPROVED Co.CD
Thofpson S IIld1Ud1U1s
POLAR PLANIMETER, AND THE PANTORRAPH.
AMERICAN STEAM GAUGE CO.,
Sole Manufacturer..
36 Chardon Street, Boston, Mass.
Send for New Illustrated Price List and name this paper.
J.C. BLAISDEI.L, Pres.
E. BURT PHILIIPS, Trees. H. K..IIOORE, Sup't
FRICTIO14 AND CUT-OFF COUPLINGS.
Danbury, Conn.
JAS. HUNTER & SON, North They        Chucks WEST
are nat
UNLESS OUR TRADE MARK
11 The lrtnkt~~ C ck,"
i.E
S
'ace.
Adams. Mass.
COTV U& DRILL

CLEVELAND TWIST DRILL COMPANY,.4
CIIL2'T1t \, (a-OEHRINU, Manti
KORTING"DOUBI
`         `THE LEADING B
OPERATED BY 1WJ.1 Lift lIct Water threagh Ilc: s:::::
SEND FOR CIRCULAR.        OFFICES AND 'NAREROO
12th and Thntuncnn Steen - Phi lndel ni.i.        I 1 5T.t 1. R 1tn r.i6oet.
page13-American Machinist 1882

BAR IRON SHEAR-HILLES & JONES,
   I` !        WILMINGTON, DEL.
For Locomotive Builders, Bolt Makers,Bridge Builders, Rolling Mills,
Will cut Flat, Round or Puddle Bars. Made with clutch for stopping and starting cutter, while
gearing is in
   =        motion, enabling a bar of iron to be cut accurately to the mark. Also has gauge for
cutting pieces of uniform
•                length. Is furnished with tight and loose pulley, or ponyengine, as desired. Send for
circular.
   Wardwell's Patent Saw I        t
   Bench. Band Saws, Rotary and I        (        z        bf) g
   Stationary Bed Planers and        ~-+ ,-.
   Buzz Planers. Dowel Machines,         ~        z
   Wavmoth Lathes,Gauge Lathes.        -        - %-- •S-: U s
   Also a large stock of Second-        -        _        I w s ~. v c3 .-.
   band Machinery-, consisting of        -
   Machinists' Tools, Woodworking         ° = .28c
   - Machinery, and Engines and I'        .         to
   Boilers. Send for Illustrated        -        R[9'~'---        .
Catalogue with stamp.        '         _
   ROLLSTO\E lIACHIST CO.,        (        '~ m
'REST, FITCHBURG, MASS.        €        m T F v
HEPARD'S CELEBRATED ___~        Q        a        oc = Q,
~O Screw Cutting Foot Lathe. ' – '        —
~        and        tah, Drill Presses,
rolls,        KE        LL & ESER
rolls, , Saw aw Attachments, Chucks,        I JFF E        S
i
andrels, Twist Drills, Dogs Calipers.        ,
lend for catalogue of outfits for atn- 127 FULTON STREET, NEW YORK,;
aura or artisans. Address,
H.        RD & CO.,Lcenl$_;
1 & 343 43 WEST FRONT FRONT STREET,         - `— -----------'t
CINCINNATI, 01310.
i Band Saw Hard Rubber Drawing Tools
We build three sizes at prices        Triangles, T-Squares,Scales, Pro-
werthananequallygoodBand        tractors,Straight-Edges,Etc.
tw can be had elsewhere. For
umber information inquire of                Al' our Hard Rubber Goods bear our Trade Mark
and are fully warranted by us. They are superior RANK & C o a to any other make. SEX)) FOR
CATALOG[E.
G74        f
176 Terrace Street,        ~~GN~N/~
   BUFFALO. N. ~.1NORK)        a
CYLINDER OIL CUP CO. ~s~o~~        -        I E
+' 1' fC1P
,tou. N. C. 011lee, 26 Vesey]St. :
:anufacturers of Oil Cups for motives, Marine and Statry Engine Cylinders, une Seibert & Gates
Patents, with
Feed.        -
TAKE NOTICE.
Sight Feed "is owned exclusive-his company. See Judge Loweeision in the United States
ict of Massachusetts, Feb.28.'82.        rP BLAISDLL & CC.,
y notified to desist the use, mannfca.        Manufacturers of
as we shall vigorously pursue and        =        Machinists' TDDISI -
~=        WORCESTER, MASS.
,_        SWIFT'S AUTOMATICTrade I.X.L. M1ark,        _9 °dVrJew
Pipe Cutting6Threading Machine•        For STEEP and FLAT ROOFS of all
BEWARE OF I]L1T ATIONS.        can be applied by ordinary workmen a
THIRD the        for a
None Genuine without our Trade-Mark and Name. j and        circular whi h gives fulldirectiol
STEAM AND GAS FITTERS' HAND TOOLS,        to app!y your own roof; also how to repai
CUTTINGPIPCUTTING& THREADING -MACHINES roofs of all kinds. Address,
For Pipe Mill use a Specialty.        W. H. STEWA]
Send for Circulars.        YONKERS, N. Y.        74 Cortlandt St., Nes
C. E. LIPE, Syracuse, N. Y.
JOSEPH B. MATTHEWS,
A 'rCMATIC EMINES, BALTI3E, 3L IrLAND.
HOLROYD & CO., Waterford, N.Y. Manufacturers of STOCKS and DIES.
-        i1        it
STEAM AND DROP PILE DRIVERS.
Skinner's Patent Steam Pile Hammer, automatic; very effective ; simple and durable, with
improrenleuts.
VULCAN IRON WORKS, CHICACO, ILLIN
The Woodbridge Pater
   lI~~'-.'lI        LATHE & PLANER TO
A.t_.r,E~a?~,,~y,s        RIGHT -1vD LEFT Ha\D CU
P        'f        Four Cutters with each Toot and every
R arranted. Send for tools, or for circular,
NO FORCIN i.        PRATT & CANDEE, Hartford, Cc
THE
Gallows BOHE
,i        Y
+. i s t        t~        Safety—Eccnomy in F_el Low Coat of 1Saiaten
   -•        u--r        n.,, eve,,,, m;,hanf enee,haxNre
New
Heavy Universal Milling I4achine.
Correspondencasolicited,
MANUFACTURED BY
J'I LUBRICATORS'
i        t i        FOR STEAM ENGINES.
r        v POSITIVE FEED,
FLASH "SIGHT."
I        ,        NO EXTERNAL OR INTERrtAL PIPES,
NO CLASS TUBES,
OR LOOSE JOINTS.
ALLEN W. SWIFT,
   
   
   
   
   
---=        Elmira, N.Y.'
   THE
Universal        Radial Drill        Co.
   — MAKE -
~~        RADIAL        
TI        V T T..T %TG

MACHINES
THEIR EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY, 1
For MACHINISTS, BLACKSMITHS& GAS FITTERS
SPECIAL NOTi ICE•
In press and ready for distribution .-n Thirty Days.
A Pocket Manual for Engineers.
Edited by JOHN W. IIILL, Mechanical Engineer, Mem. Am. Soc'y of Civil Eagincers; Mem. Am.
Assn R. It y1.M
EDITION, TEN THOUSAND.
Of which, first 2,000 copies will be furnished postage pre-paid at one dollar (elm) each,
subsequent copies will cc furnished (postage prepaid) at one dollar and a-half ($1.60) each. A
pocket manual of useful information for Mechanical Eno veers. Steau, users and mechanics;
containing 234 pages. (set in Nonpareil types of carefully selected data, tormala and
experimental investigation& from the latest and most approved sources. Printed from
electrotype plates, on white Na. 1 book paper, in
stt8 mor,,cco covers with cardinal edge: size of page, 4'3 x 6t;
inehes. From press of Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati.
Published by WILLIAM A. HARRIS,
Builder of HARRIS-CORLISS STEAM ENGINES,
PROVIDENCE, R. I.
To whom all Subscriptions for copies should be sent,
THE BAPACTWANATH STEF
JACKET FEED WATE] HEATER & PURIFIER.
Manufactured by tl
Pacific Boiler W
OF CHICACC Best Feed Water I
IN TIIE WORLD Delivers Feed Water s degrees above boiling)
REDUCES BALE PBESSt
CN ENGINE. Prevents and removes and incrustation from I
SAVES FUEL Increases the steaming
city of boilers, and so
boiler repairs.
BENJ. F. BELL:
91 Liberty St„ New Gen. Eastern Agent
BRIDGEPORT BOILER \VOF
BRIDGEPORT, CONN. LOWE & WATSON, Proprieto
MANUFACTURERS OF
The Lowe Patent Tubular Boiler, wit] without Superheating Drums. Fou years' use proves them
the most du and reliable boiler known. Gives dry s, The process for combustion of the gase the
construction and setting. Burnt fuel; obtains as much result from it a boiler or setting with no
more cost greater durability.
.Send for descriptive Circular.

BIRKENHEAD'S
New Single Head Lath
Hollow Spindle, Improved Stop Motion, 1. Swing 4 to S feet beds. Also, 5 foot Hand I and
Engine Lathes with screws and back gel back geared lathes without screw. Send for cit
JOHN BIRKENFLFAD, MANSFIELD, MASS., U.


JULY 21, 1883        AMERICAN MACHINIST
pg 13
Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company,
NEW BEDFORD, MASS., Sole _Manufacturers of
MORSE PATENT STRAIGHT-LIP INCREASE TWIST DRILL
SOLID AND SHELL REAMERS, BEACH'S PATENT SELF-CENTERING CIILCK, BIT STOCK
DRILLS,
Drills for Co",. Worcester. Hunter, and other Hand Drill Presses. Drill Grinding _Machines,
Center ant.
Adjustable Drill Chucks, Taper Reamers, Milling Cutters, and Special Tools to order.
All Tools Enact to Whitworth Standard Gauges.

GEO. R. STETSON, Sup't.        EDWARD S. TABER, Pres't and Treas.
A fire-proof        oles and prices.        le        MINERAL ?IOOL
cents per cubic ft. ft. at wholesale wholesale prices. . Sample
and circulars free by mail.        .
U. S. Mineral Wool Co.        FibreMaziiaed.
22 Cortlandt Street, N. Y.

BAR IRON SHEAR
MADE Bt
HILLES & JONES,
WILI[INGTON, DEL.
For Locomotive Builders, Bolt Makers,
Bridge Builders, Rolling Mills,
Will cut Flat, Round or Puddle Bars. Made with clutch for stopping and starting cutter, while
gearing is In motion, enabling a bar of iron to be out accurately to the mark. Also hat gauze for
cutting pieces of uniform length. Is furnished with tight and loose pulley, or pony engine, as
desired. Send for circular.

WW'ardwell's Patent Saw
Bench, Band Saws. Rotary and
]~°°~        Stationary Bed Planers and
Buzz Planers, Dowel Machines,
R:.ptnoth Lathes,Gauge Lathes.
'        r        Also alarge stock of Second-
hand        —_         `iachinerv, consisting of
Machinists' Tools,Woodworking
Machinery, and Engines and
--- - y~        Boilers.        Send for Illustrated
-- Catalogue with stamp.
   
BOLLSTONE MACHINL CO.,
45 WATER STREET, FITCHBURG, MASS.
, SHEPARD'S CELEBRATED $60 Screw Cutting Foot Lathe.
Foot and Power Lathes, Drill Presses, Scrolls, Saw Attachments, Chucks, i.,        Mandrels,
Twist Drills, Dogs Calipers.
Send for catalogue of outfits for am-
ateurs or artisans. Address,

H. L. SHEPARD & CO., 341 & 343 WEST FRONT STREET, ° ° a        CINCINNATI, OHIO.
Eureka Band Saw
We build three sizes at prices
lower than an equally good Band Saw can be had elsewhere. For further information inquire of
FRANK & CO.
   17G Terrace Street,        ~~G~~N/C9        0 ) _

BFI-F'ALO. N. Y•.        NORK)r        9
THE SEIBERT CYLINDER OIL CUP CO.        I'E
   53 Oliver St., Boston. N. 1•. office, 'l6 Vesey;SL        ~~ EC1Pfi
Sole Manufacturers of Oil Cups for Locomotives, Marine and Sta-
ll                Engine Cylinders, under the Seibert & Gates Patents, with
Sight Feed.        
TABE NOTICE.
The "Sight Feed "is owned exclusive-
ly by this company. See Judge Low-
ell's decision in the rutted States
Circuit Court, District of Massachusetts, Feb.23, 'S2.
All parties are hereby notified to desist the use, manufcature, orsale of same, as we shall
vigorously pursue and prosecute all infringers_.

D. SAUNDERS' SONS
M AN17FACTVRERS OF THE ORIGINAL
Trade I.X.L. 1[ark,
Pipe Cutting~Threading lMlachine.
IIE%%-:1RE OF DHT_1TIONia.
None Genuine without our Trade-Mark and Name.
STEAM AND GAS FITTERS' HAND TOOLS,
PIPE CUTTING & THREADING MACHINES
For Pipe Mill use a Specialty.
Send for Circulars.        YONKERS, N, Y.

MANUFACTURED BY
C. E. LIPE, Syracuse, N. Y
JOSEPH B. MATTHEWS,
AZTiMATI: Ei 5I ZS, EALTII::E, ,,,L rLAND.
HOLROYD & CO., Waterford, N.Y.

Manufacturers of STOCKS and DIES.
For '4 ACHINISTS, BLACKSMITHS & GAS FITTERS
SPECIAL NOTICE.        =--
In pecan and ready for dl;tribution In Tliirty 1)aye.
A Pocket Manual for Engineers.
Edited by JOHN' W. HILL, Mechanical Engineer,
Rem. Am. Soc'y of Civil Engineers; Hem. Am. Assn R. It. .LM

EDITION, TEN THOUSAND.
Of which. first 2,CM copies will be furnished postage pre-peid at one dollar .ft oo) each,
subsequent copies will be furnished (postage pre-paid) at one dollar and a-half (51.50) each. A
pocket manual of useful information for Mechanical Engi veers. Steam use,a and mechanics;
containing 224 pages, (set in Nonpareil type) of carefully selected data, formula and
superimentalisveatigationa, from the latest and most approved sources. Printed from
electrotype plates, on white No 1 book paper, in stiff mon.cco covers with cardinal edges, size
of page, 434 it 6 , inches. From press of Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati.
Published by WILLIAM A. HARRIS, Builder of HARRIS-CORLISS STEAM ENGINES,
PROVIDENCE, H. I.
To whom all Subscriptions for copies should be sent.

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KEUFFEL & ESSER,
127 FULTON STREET, NEW YORK,
Hard Rubber Drawing Tools
Triangles, T-Squares, Scales, Pro-
tractors, Straight-Edges, Etc.
All our ]lard Rubber goods bear our Trade Mark and are fully warranted by us. They air superior
to any other make. SEND FOIL I'A'1'ALOG('E.
r / P, ELAISD?.LL & CO.,

Manufacturers of
Machinists'Tools,
WORCESTER, MASS.

New
Heavy
Universal
Milling
Machine.
Correspondence solicited.
THE ALLII
Teeth cut di
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A_g_tt 31, 1575.
AMERICAN SA
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For STEEP and can be applied by THIRD the cost c and our circular w to apply your own roofs
of all kinds.
THE BABA( JACKET HEATER
BRIDGEPORT BRIDG
LOWE & W.
'd .A'
The Lowe Paten without Superb
years' use prove
and reliable boil. The process for c
the construction
fuel ; obtains as i boiler or setting greater durabilit 4Send for den
BIRK